Combined Bibliography

This page contains the combined bibliography for many of the web pages on this site. Names highlighted in blue have links to biographies or web pages of the corresponding persons, places, or things. Titles highlighted in blue have links to summaries, reviews, excerpts, or complete copies of the documents.



Adriaens, Geert, & Steven L. Small (1988) "Word expert parsing revisited in a cognitive science perspective," in Small et al. (1988) 13-43.

Albertazzi, Liliana, ed. (1999) Shapes of Forms, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Alchourrón, Carlos, Peter Gärdenfors, & David Makinson (1985) "On the logic of theory change: partial meet contraction and revision functions," Journal of Symbolic Logic 50:2, 510-530.

Alexander, Christopher (1964) Notes on the Synthesis of Form, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Alexander, Christopher (1979) The Timeless Way of Building, Oxford University Press, New York.

Allen, James F. (1983) "Maintaining knowledge about temporal intervals," Communications of the ACM 26:11, pp. 832-843.

Allen, James F. (1984) "Towards a general theory of action and time," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 23, pp. 123-154.

Allen, James F., & Patrick J. Hayes (1985) "A common-sense theory of time," Proceedings AAAI-85, pp. 528-531.

Allerton, D. J. (1982) Valency and the English Verb, Academic Press, New York.

Almog, Joseph, John Perry, & Howard Wettstein (1989) Themes from Kaplan, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Allwein, Gerard, & Jon Barwise (1996) "Logical Reasoning with Diagrams," Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Amarel, Saul (1968) "On representations of problems of reasoning about actions," in D. Michie, ed., Machine Intelligence 3, American Elsevier, New York, pp. 131-171.

Anderson, Alan Ross, & Nuel D. Belnap, Jr. (1975) Entailment: The Logic of Relevance and Necessity, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Anderson, John R., & Gordon H. Bower (1980) Human Associative Memory: A Brief Edition, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

Anellis, Irving H. (1995) "Peirce rustled, Russell pierced: how Charles Pierce and Bertrand Russell viewed each other's work in logic, and an assessment of Russell's accuracy and role in the historiography of logic," Modern Logic 5:3, 270-328.

Annas, Julia, & Jonathan Barnes (1985) "The Modes of Scepticism: Ancient Texts and Modern Interpretations," Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Antonacci, F., Russo, M., Pazienza, M. T., and Velardi, P. (1989) "System for text analysis and lexical knowledge acquisition," Data and Knowledge Engineering, vol. 4, no. 1, p. 1-20.

Apel, Karl-Otto (1975) Der Denkweg von Charles S. Peirce, translated by J. M. Krois as Charles S. Peirce: from Pragmatism to Pragmaticism, University of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, 1981.

Apel, Karl-Otto (1983) "C. S. Peirce and post-Tarskian truth," in Freeman (1983) pp. 189-223.

Appelt, Douglas E., Jerry R. Hobbs, John Bear, David Israel, & Mabry Tyson (1993) "FASTUS: A finite-state processor for information-extraction from real-world text," in Proc. IJCAI 93, pp. 1172-1178.

Apt, Krzysztof R., Howard A. Blair, & Adrian Walker (1988) "Towards a theory of declarative knowledge," in Minker (1988) pp. 89-144.

Arbib, Michael A. (1972) The Metaphorical Brain, Wiley, New York.

Arbib, Michael A., A. J. Kfoury, & Robert N. Moll (1981) A Basis for Theoretical Computer Science, Springer-Verlag, New York.

Arens, Hans (1984) Aristotle's Theory of Language and its Tradition, John Benjamins Publishing Co., Amsterdam.

Arieti, Silvano (1978) "The psychobiology of sadness," in S. Arieti & J. Bemporad, Severe and Mild Depression, Basic Books, New York, pp. 109-128.

Aristotle, The Categories, On Interpretation, Prior Analytics, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Aristotle, Metaphysics, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Aristotle, Posterior Analytics, Topica, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Aristotle, On the Soul, Parva Naturalia, On Breath, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Aronson, Jerrold L. (1984) A Realist Philosophy of Science, St. Martin's Press, New York.

Aronson, Jerrold L., Rom Harré, and Eileen C. Way (1994) Realism Rescued: How Scientific Progress is Possible, Duckworth Publishers, London.

Attardi, Giuseppe, & Maria Simi (1995) "A formalization of viewpoints," Fundamenta Informaticae, vol. 23, pp. 149-173.

Augustine, St. (1975) De Dialectica with translation and notes by B. D. Jackson, Synthese Historical Library, Reidel, Dordrecht.

Austin, John L. (1962), How to do Things with Words, second edition edited by J. O. Urmson & Marina Sbisá, Harvard University Press, Cambrige, MA, 1975.


Baader, Franz, Bernhard Hollunder, Bernhard Nebel, Hans-Jürgen Profitlich, & Enrico Franconi (1992) "An empirical analysis of optimization techniques for terminological representation systems," Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Principles of Knowledge Representation and Reasoning, Cambridge, MA.

Baader, Franz, Diego Calvanese, Deborah McGuinness, Daniele Nardi, Peter Patel-Schneider (2003) Description Logic Handbook, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bach, Emmon (1989) Informal Lectures on Formal Semantics, SUNY Press, Albany.

Bachman, C. W. (1969) "Data structure diagrams," Data Base 1:2, ACM SIGBDP, New York, pp. 4-10.

Backus, John (1959) "The syntax and semantics of the proposed international algebraic language," Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Information Processing, Butterworth, London, pp. 125-132.

Badler, Norman I., Barry D. Reich, & Bonnie L. Weber (1997) "Towards personalities for animated agents with reactive and planning behaviors," in Trappl & Petta (1997) pp. 43-57.

Bailey, David, (1997) A Computational Model of Embodiment in the Acquisition of Action Verbs, Doctoral dissertation, Computer Science Division, EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley.

Baker, Mark C. (2003) Lexical Categories: Verbs, Nouns, and Adjectives, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Baldwin, J.F. (1986) Automated fuzzy and probabilistic inference, Fuzzy Sets and Systems, vol 18, pp. 219-235.

Bar Hillel, Yehoshua (1954) "Logical Syntax and Semantics", Language 30, 230-237.

Bar Hillel, Yehoshua (1960) "The present status of automatic translation of languages," in F. L. Alt, ed., Advances in Computers 1, Academic Press, New York, 91-163.

Bartlett, Frederic C. (1932) Remembering, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Barwise, Jon, & John Perry (1983) Situations and Attitudes, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Barwise, J., J. M. Mark Gawron, G. Plotkin, & S. Tutiya, eds. (1991) Situation Theory and its Applications, CSLI, Stanford, CA.

Barwise, Jon, & John Etchemendy (1987) The Liar: An Essay on Truth and Circularity, Oxford University Press, New York.

Barwise, Jon, & John Etchemendy (1993) Tarski's World, CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA.

Barwise, Jon, & Jerry Seligman (1997) Information Flow:  The Logic of Distributed Systems, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Basili, Roberto, Maria Teresa Pazienza, & Paola Velardi (1993) "Acquisition of selectional patterns from sublanguages," Machine Translation 8.

Basili, Roberto, Maria Teresa Pazienza, & Paola Velardi (1994) "The noisy channel and the braying donkey," The Balancing Act: Combining Symbolic and Statistical Approaches to Language, ACL, Bernardsville, NJ.

Basili, Roberto, Maria Teresa Pazienza, & Paola Velardi (1996) "An empirical symbolic approach to natural language processing," Artificial Intelligence 85, 59-99.

Bateman, John A., Robert T. Kasper, Johanna D. Moore, & Richard A. Whitney (1990) A general organization of knowledge for natural language processing: The Penman Upper Model, Technical report, USC Information Sciences Institute, Marina del Rey, CA.

Beiser, Frederick C. (1987) The Fate of Reason: German Philosophy from Kant to Fichte, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Berg-Cross, Gary (1992) "Can a large knowledge base be built by importing and unifying diverse knowledge? Lessons from scruffy work," Knowledge-Based Systems, vol. 5, no. 3, 1992.

Bergson, Henri (1889) Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience, translated by F. L. Pogson as Time and Free Will, Harper & Brothers, New York.

Berners-Lee, Tim, R. Fielding, & L. Masinter, eds. (1998) Uniform Resource Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax, Internet RFC 2396.

Berners-Lee, Tim (1999) The Semantic Toolbox: Building Semantics on top of XML-RDF,

Berners-Lee, Tim, James Hendler, & Ora Lassila (2001) "The Semantic Web," Scientific American, May 2001.

Bernus, Peter, Kai Mertins, & Günter Schmidt, eds. (1998) Handbook on Architectures of Information Systems, Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Beth, Evert W. (1939) Symbolic logic as a continuation of traditional formal logic, reprinted in E. W. Beth, Science a Road to Wisdom, D. Reidel Publishing Co., Dordrecht, pp. 42-61.

Beth, Evert Willem (1955) Semantic Entailment and Formal Derivability, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam.

Bicarregui, J. C., J. S. Fitzgerald, P. A. Lindsay, R. Moore, & B. Richie (1994) Proof in VDM: A Practitioner's Guide, Springer-Verlag, London.

Binnick, Robert I. (1991) Time and the Verb, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Blaauw, Gerrit A., & Frederick P. Brooks, Jr. (1997) Computer Architecture: Concepts and Evolution, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Bläsius, K. H., U. Hedstück, & C-R. Rollinger, eds. (1989) Sorts and Types in Artificial Intelligence, LNAI 418, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Bledsoe, Woody W. (1977) "Non-resolution theorem proving," Artificial Intelligence 9, pp. 1-35.

Bloomfield, Leonard (1914) An Introduction to Language, reprinted by J. Benjamins, Amsterdam, 1983.

Bloomfield, Leonard (1933) Language, Holt, Rinehart, & Winston, New York.

Blum, Lenore, Felipe Cucker, Michael Shub, Steve Smale (1998) Complexity and Real Computation, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Bobrow, Daniel G., & J. Bruce Fraser (1969) "An augmented state transition network analysis procedure," Proc. IJCAI-69, 557-567.

Bobrow, Daniel G., & Allan Collins, eds. (1975) Representation and Understanding: Studies in Cognitive Science, Academic Press, New York.

Bobrow, Daniel G., & Terry Winograd (1977) "An overview of KRL, a knowledge representation language," Cognitive Science, vol 1, 3-46.

Bobrow, R. J. (1978) "The RUS system," in B. L. Webber & R. J. Bobrow, Research in Natural Language Understanding, BBN Report 3878, Cambridge, MA.

Bocheński, Innocenty M. (1956) Formale Logik, translated by Ivo Thomas as A History of Formal Logic, 2nd edition, Chelsea Publishing Co., New York, 1970.

Bod, Rens (1998) Beyond Grammar: An Experience-Based Theory of Language, CSLI, Stanford, CA.

Bohr, Niels (1934) Atomic Theory and the Description of Nature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Bohr, Niels (1958) Atomic Physics and Human Knowledge, Wiley, New York.

Bolc, Leonard, & Piotr Borowik (1992) Many-Valued Logics: 1 Theoretical Foundations, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Boler, John F. (1963) Charles Peirce and Scholastic Realism: A Study of Peirce's Relation to John Duns Scotus, University of Washington Press, Seattle.

Bolinger, Dwight (1965) "The atomization of meaning," Language 41, 555-573.

Bolzano, Bernhard (1837) Wissenschaftslehre, Sulzbach.

Bonzon, Pierre, Marcos Cavalcanti, & Rolf Nossum, eds. (2000) Formal Aspects of Context, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Bookman, Lawrence A. (1994) Trajectories through Knowledge Space: A Dynamic Framework for Machine Comprehension, Kluwer, Boston.

Boole, George (1847) The Mathematical Analysis of Logic,

Boole, George (1854) An Investigation into the Laws of Thought, reprinted by Dover Publications, New York.

Boolos, George (1998) Logic, Logic, and Logic, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Boolos, George S., & Richard C. Jeffrey (1974) Computability and Logic, Cambridge University Press, Third edition 1989.

Borges, Jorge Luis (1941) "La Biblioteca de Babel" translated as "The library of Babel" in Ficciones, Grove Press, New York.

Borgida, Alex (1992) "From types to knowledge representation," International J. on Cooperative and Intelligent Information Systems, vol. 1, no. 1.

Born, Max (1949) Natural Philosophy of Cause and Chance, Dover Publications, New York.

Bowen, Kenneth A., & Robert A. Kowalski (1982) "Amalgamating language and metalanguage in logic programming," in K. L. Clark & S.-A. Tärnlund, eds., Logic Programming, Academic Press, New York, pp. 153-172.

Box, George E. P., J. Stuart Hunter, & William G. Hunter (2005) Statistics for Experimenters: Design, Innovation, and Discovery, 2nd Edition, Wiley-Interscience, New York.

Brachman, Ronald J. (1979) "On the epistemological status of semantic networks," in Findler (1979) 3-50.

Brachman, Ronald J. (1985) "'I lied about the trees,' Or defaults and definitions in knowledge representation," AI Magazine 6:3, 80-93.

Brachman, Ronald J., Richard E. Fikes, & Hector J. Levesque (1983) "KRYPTON: A functional approach to knowledge representation," IEEE Computer, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 67-73.

Brachman, R. J., V. P. Gilbert, & H. J. Levesque (1985) "An essential hybrid reasoning system," Proceedings IJCAI-85, pp. 532-539.

Brachman, Ronald J., & Hector J. Levesque, eds. (1985) Readings in Knowledge Representation, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA.

Brachman, Ronald J., Deborah L. McGuinness, Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Lori A. Resnick, & Alex Borgida (1991) "Living with Classic: when and how to use a KL-ONE-like language," in Sowa (1991) pp. 401-456.

Bratman, Michael E. (1987) Intentions, Plans, and Practical Reason, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Bray, Tim (1998) "RDF and Metadata,"

Bray, Tim, Dave Hollander, & Andrew Layman, eds. (1999) Namespaces in XML, W3 TR REC-xml-names.

Breiman, Leo (2001) "Statistical Modeling: The Two Cultures," Statistical Science 16:3, 199-231.

Brennan, Andrew (1988) Conditions of Identity, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Brentano, Franz (1862) Von der mannigfachen Bedeutung des Seienden nach Aristoteles, translated as On the Several Senses of Being in Aristotle, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1975.

Brentano, Franz (1874) Psychologie vom empirischen Standpunkte, translated as Psychology from an Empirical Standpoint by A. C. Rancurello, D. B. Terrell, & L. L. McAlister, Routledge, London.

Brentano, Franz (1933) Kategorienlehre, translated by R. M. Chisholm & N. Guterman as The Theory of Categories, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, The Hague, 1980.

Brewka, Gerhard, ed. (1996) Principles of Knowledge Representation, CSLI, Stanford, CA.

Brewka, Gerhard, Christopher Habel, & Bernhard Nebel, eds. (1997) KI-97: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, LNAI 1303, Springer Verlag, Berlin.

Brooks, Rodney A. (1986) "A robust layered control system for a mobile robot," IEEE Journal of Robotics and Automation, RA-2(1), pp. 14-23.

Brooks, Rodney A. (1991) "Intelligence without representation," Artificial Intelligence 47, pp. 139-159.

Brown, Frank M., ed. (1987) The Frame Problem in Artificial Intelligence, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA.

Brown, G. Spencer (1972) The Laws of Form, The Julian Press, New York.

Brownston, Lee, Robert Farrell, Elaine Kant, & Nancy Martin (1985) Programming Expert Systems in OPS5: An Introduction to Rule-Based Programming, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Bruin, Jos de, & Remko Scha (1988) "The interpretation of relational nouns," Proceedings of the ACL, Buffalo, NY.

Brunning, Jacqueline, & Paul Forster, eds. (1997) The Rule of Reason: The Philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Buchanan, Bruce G., & Edward H. Shortliffe, eds. (1984) Rule-Based Expert Systems, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Buchholz, Werner, ed. (1962) Planning a Computer System, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Bundy, Alan, & Fiona McNeill (2006) "Representation as a fluent:  An AI challenge for the next half century," IEEE Intelligent Systems 21:3, pp. 85-87.

Bunt, Harry (1985) Mass Terms and Model-Theoretic Semantics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Burke, Edmund (1796) Thoughts on the Prospect of a Regicide Peace, in a Series of Letters, Printed for J. Owen, London.

Burke, Tom (1991) "Peirce on truth and partiality," in Barwise et al. (1991) pp. 115-146.

Burnstine, Donald C. (1979) The Theory Behind BIAIT — Business Information Analysis and Integration Technique, BIAIT International, Petersburg, New York.

Burger, Henry G., ed. (1984) The Wordtree, Merriam, Kansas.

Butt, Miriam, & William Geuder (1998) The Projection of Arguments: Lexical and Compositional Factors, CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA.

Bybee, Joan, Revere Perkins, & William Pagliuca (1994) The Evolution of Grammar: Tense, Aspect and Modality in the Languages of the World, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Bylander, Tom, Dean Allemang, Michael C. Tanner, & John R. Josephson (1991) "The computational complexity of abduction," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 49, pp. 25-60.


Calcagno, Franciscus X. (1952) Philosophia Scholastica secundum Rationem, Doctrinam et Principia S. Thomae Aquinatis, third edition, M. D'Auria, Naples.

Callaghan, Steve (2001) Optimising Comparisons of Complex Objects by Precomputing their Graph Properties PhD dissertation, Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, Melbourne, Australia.

Carbonell, Jaime G., & Masaru Tomita (1987) "Knowledge-based machine translation, the CMU approach," in Machine Translation: Theoretical and Methodological Issues, S. Nierenburg, ed., Cambridge University Press.

Carlson, W. M. (1979) "The new horizon in business information analysis," Data Base 10:4, 3-9.

Carnap, Rudolf (1928) Scheinprobleme in der Philosophie,

Carnap, Rudolf (1928) Der logische Aufbau der Welt, English translation The Logical Structure of the World, University of California Press, Berkeley, 1967.

Carnap, Rudolf (1931) "Überwindung der Metaphysik durch logische Analyse der Sprache," Erkenntniss 2, 220-241.

Carnap, Rudolf (1934) Logische Syntax der Sprache, translated as The Logical Syntax of Language, Humanities Press, New York, 1937.

Carnap, Rudolf (1947) Meaning and Necessity, University of Chicago Press, Chicago. Second edition 1956.

Carnap, Rudolf (1954) Einführung in die symbolische Logik, translated by W. H. Meyer & J. Wilkinson as Introduction to Symbolic Logic and its Applications, Dover Publications, New York.

Carnap, Rudolf (1955) "Meaning and synonymy in natural languages," Philosophical Studies 7, 33-47. Reprinted as Appendix D of Carnap (1947), second edition, pp. 233-247.

Carnap, Rudolf (1963) "Autobiography," in P. A. Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap, Open Court Press, La Salle, IL, pp. 3-84.

Carnap, Rudolf (1966) An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science, edited by Martin Gardner, Dover Publications, New York.

Carnap, Rudolf, Otto Neurath, & Hans Hahn (1929) Wissenschaftliche Weltauffassung der Wiener Kreis, A. Wolf, Vienna.

Carpenter, Bob (1992) The Logic of Typed Feature Structures, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Carriero, Nicholas, & David Gelernter (1992) How to Write Parallel Programs, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Casati, Roberto, & Achille C. Varzi (1994) Holes and Other Superficialities, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Cassirer, Ernst (1942) Zur Logik der Kulturwissenschaften, translated by S. G. Lofts as The Logic of the Cultural Sciences, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Cattell, R. G. G., & Douglas K. Barry, eds. (1997) The Object Database Standard, ODMG 2.0, Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA.

Ceccato, Silvio (1961) Linguistic Analysis and Programming for Mechanical Translation, Gordon and Breach, New York.

Ceccato, Silvio (1964) "Automatic translation of languages," Information Storage and Retrieval 2:3, 105-158.

Chafe, Wallace L. (1970) Meaning and the Structure of Language, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Chamberlin, Don (1996) Using the New DB2, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Francisco.

Chamberlin, Donald D., James C. King, Donald R. Slutz, Stephen J.P. Todd, & Bradford W. Wade (1981) "JANUS: An interactive system for document composition," Proc. of the ACM SIGPLAN SIGOA symposium on Text manipulation, Portland, OR, pp. 82 - 91.

Chan, Wing-Tsit (1963) A Source Book in Chinese Philosophy, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Chandrasekaran, B. (1994) "Broader issues at stake: a reply to Elkan," IEEE Expert 9:4, 10-13.

Chapman, D. (1989) "Penguins can make cake," AI Magazine 10:4, 45-50.

Charniak, Eugene (1993) Statistical Language Learning, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Charniak, Eugene, & Yorick Wilks, eds. (1976) Computational Semantics, North-Holland, Amsterdam.

Charniak, Eugene, Christopher K. Riesbeck, & Drew V. McDermott (1980) Artificial Intelligence Programming, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

Chase, William G., ed. (1973) Visual Information Processing, Academic Press, New York.

Chase, William G., & Herbert A. Simon (1973) "The mind's eye in chess," in Chase (1973) 215-281.

Chein, Michel, ed., (1996) Revue d'intelligence artificielle, Numéro Spécial Graphes Conceptuels, vol. 10, no. 1.

Chen, Peter Pin-Shan (1976) "The entity-relationship model—toward a unified view of data," ACM Transactions on Database Systems 1:1, pp. 9-36.

Chen, Weidong, Michael Kifer, & David S. Warren (1993) "Hilog:  A Foundation for Higher-Order Logic Programming," Journal of Logic Programming 15:3, pp. 187-230.

Cherry, E. Colin (1962) "Why we have two ears," Advancement of Science, Sept. 1962, 218-221.

Chierchia, Gennaro, & Sally McConnell-Ginet (1990) Meaning and Grammar: An Introduction to Semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, Second edition 2000.

Chisman, James A. (1992) Introduction to Simulation Modeling Using GPSS/PC, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Chomsky, Noam (1956) "Three models for the description of language," IRE Transactions on Information Theory, IT-2:3, 113-124.

Chomsky, Noam (1957) Syntactic Structures, Mouton, The Hague.

Chomsky (1959) "A review of B. F. Skinner's Verbal Behavior," Language 35, 26-58. Reprinted in Fodor & Katz (1964) 547-578.

Chomsky, Noam (1965) Aspects of the Theory of Syntax, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Chomsky, Noam (1968) Language and Mind, Harcourt, Brace, & World, New York. Extended edition 1972.

Chomsky, Noam (1982) Some Concepts and Consequences of the Theory of Government and Binding, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Chomsky, Noam (1995) The Minimalist Program, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Church, Alonzo (1941) The Calculi of Lambda Conversion, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Church, Alonzo (1958) The ontological status of women and abstract entities, Lecture presented at Harvard University on April 18, 1958, available at

Church, Alonzo (1989) "Intensionality and the paradox of the name relation," in Themes from Kaplan, ed. by J. Almog, J. Perry, & H. Wettstein, Oxford University Press, New York.

Codd, Edgar F. (1970) "A relational model of data for large shared data banks," Comm. ACM 13:6, 377-387.

Codd, Edgar F. (1971) "ALPHA: A database sublanguage founded on the relational calculus," in Proc. ACM SIGFIDET Workshop, San Diego.

Codd, E. F. (1979) "Extending the relational model to capture more meaning," ACM Transactions on Database Systems 4:4, pp. 397-434.

Coffa, J. Alberto (1991) The Semantic Tradition from Kant to Carnap, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cohen, Philip R., & Hector J. Levesque (1990) "Intention is choice with commitment," Artificial Intelligence 42:3, 213-261.

Cohn, Anthony G. (1997) "Qualitative spatial representation and reasoning techniques," in Brewka et al. (1997) pp. 1-30.

Comte, Auguste (1830-1842) Cours de Philosophie positive, selections translated by Margaret Clarke as The Essential Comte, Barnes & Noble, New York, 1974.

Cook, Stephen A. (1971) "The complexity of theorem-proving procedures," Proc. 3rd ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, ACM, New York, pp. 151-158.

Cook, Walter A., S.J. (1979) Case Grammar: Development of the Matrix Model, Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC.

Cook, Walter A., S.J. (1989) Case Grammar Theory, Georgetown University Press, Washington, DC.

Cooper, Robin, & Hans Kamp (1991) "Negation in situation semantics and discourse representation theory," in Barwise et al. (1991) pp. 311-333.

Chandler, Daniel (2002) Semiotics: The Basics, Routledge, London.

Cowie, Jim, & Wendy Lehnert (1996) "Information extraction," Communications of the ACM, vol. 39, no. 1, pp. 80-91.

Craik, K. J. W. (1952) The Nature of Explanation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Crary, Alice, & Rupert Read, eds. (2000) The New Wittgenstein, Routledge, London.

Crawford, J. M., & Benjamin Kuipers (1991) "ALL: formalizing access-limited reasoning," in Sowa (1991b) pp. 299-330.

Cresswell, M. J. (1990) Entities and Indices, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Croft, William (1991) Syntactic Categories and Grammatical Relations, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Croft, William (1998) "Event structure in argument linking," in Butt & Geuder (1998) pp. 21-63.

Croft, William (2001) Radical Construction Grammar: Syntactic Theory in Typological Perspective, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Croft, William, & D. Alan Cruse (2004) Cognitive Linguistics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Cruse, D. Alan (1986) Lexical Semantics, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Cruse, D. Alan (2000) "Aspects of the micro-structure of word meanings," in Ravin & Leacock (2000) pp. 30-51.

Cruse, D. Alan (2002) "Microsenses, default specificity and the semantics-pragmatics boundary," Axiomathes 1, 1-20.

Cruse, D. Alan (2004) Meaning in Language: An Introduction to Semantics and Pragmatics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Cummins, Robert (1989) Meaning and Mental Representations, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Cyre, W. R., S. Balachandar, & A. Thakar (1994) "Knowledge visualization from conceptual structures," in Tepfenhart et al. (1994) Conceptual Structures: Current Practice, LNAI 835, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 275-292.

Cyre, W. R. (1997) "Capture, integration, and analysis of digital system requirements with conceptual graphs," IEEE Trans. Knowledge and Data Engineering, 9:1, 8-23.

Cyre, W. R., J. Hess, A. Gunawan, & R. Sojitra (1999) "A Rapid Modeling Tool for Virtual Prototypes ," in 1999 Workshop on Rapid System Prototyping, Clearwater, FL.


Date, C. J. (1986) Relational Database: Selected Writings, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, pp. 203-240.

Dau, Frithjof, Marie-Laure Mugnier, & Gerd Stumme, eds. (2005) Conceptual Structures:  Common Semantics for Sharing Knowledge, LNAI 3596, Springer, Berlin.

Davidson, Donald (1967) "The logical form of action sentences," reprinted in D. Davidson (1980) Essays on Actions and Events, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 105-148.

Davis, Ernest (1990) Representations of Commonsense Knowledge, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA.

Davis, Randall, Howard Schrobe, & Peter Szolovits (1993) "What is a knowledge representation?" AI Magazine, 14:1, 17-33.

Deacon, Terrence W. (1997) The Symbolic Species: The Co-evolution of Language and the Brain, W. W. Norton, New York.

Deacon, Terrence W. (2004) "Memes as Signs in the Dynamic Logic of Semiosis: Beyond Molecular Science and Computation Theory," in K. E. Wolff, H. D. Pfeiffer, & H. S. Delugach, Conceptual Structures at Work, LNAI 3127, Springer, Berlin, pp. 17-30.

Deely, John (2001) "Umwelt", Semiotica 134(1/4), 125-135.

Deely, John (2003) The Impact on Philosophy of Semiotics, St. Augustine's Press, South Bend, IN.

de Groot, Adriaan D. (1965) Thought and Choice in Chess, Mouton, The Hague.

DeJong, Gerald F. (1979) "Prediction and substantiation," Cognitive Science, vol. 3, pp. 251-273.

DeJong, Gerald F. (1982) "An overview of the FRUMP system," in W. G. Lehnert & M. H. Ringle, eds., Strategies for Natual Language Processing, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ, pp. 149-176.

de Kleer, Johan (1986) "An assumption-based truth-maintenance system," Artificial Intelligence 28:2, 127-162.

de Moor, Aldo, Wilfried Lex, & Bernhard Ganter, eds. (2003) Conceptual Structures for Knowledge Creation and Communication, LNAI 2746, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Dennet, Daniel C. (1987) The Intentional Stance, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Dennet, Daniel C. (1996) Kinds of Minds, Basic Books, New York.

Devine, A. M., & Laurence D. Stephens (2000) Discontinuous Syntax: Hyperbaton in Greek, Oxford University Press, New York.

Devlin, Keith (1991a) "Situations as mathematical abstractions," in Barwise et al. (1991) pp. 25-39.

Devlin, Keith (1991b) Logic and Information, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Devlin, Keith, & Duska Rosenberg (1996) Language at Work, CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA.

de Waal, Frans (2005) Our Inner Ape:  Power, Sex, Violence, Kindness, and the Evolution of Human Nature, Penguin Group, New York.

Dick, Judith P. (1991) A Conceptual Case-Relation Representation of Text for Information Retrieval, PhD dissertation, Report CSRI-265, Computer Systems Research Institute, University of Toronto.

Dijkstra, Edsger W. (1968) "Cooperating sequential processes," in F. Genuys, ed., Programming Languages, Academic Press, New York.

Dijkstra, Edsger W. (1982) Selected Writings On Computing: A Personal Perspective, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Dinsmore, John (1992) "Thunder in the gap," in J. Dinsmore, ed., The Symbolic and Connectionist Paradigms: Closing the Gap, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

Dipert, Randall R. (1995) "Peirce's underestimated place in the history of logic," in Ketner (1995) pp. 32-58.

Dixon, R. M. W. (1991) A New Approach to English Grammar on Semantic Principles, Oxford University Press, New York.

Does, Jaap van der (1993) "Sums and quantifiers," Linguistics and Philosophy 16:5, 509-550.

Dolan, William, Lucy Vanderwende, & Stephen Richardson (2000) in Ravin & Leacok (2000) pp. 178-204.

Donald, Merlin (1991) Origins of the Modern Mind: Three Stages in the Evolution of Culture and Cognition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Doyle, Jon (1979) "A truth-maintenance system," Artificial Intelligence 12:3, 231-272.

Donnellan, Keith (1966) "Reference and definite descriptions," Philosophical Review 75, 281-304.

Doyle, Jon, & Ramesh S. Patil (1991) "Two theses of knowledge representation: language restrictions, taxonomic classification, and the utility of representation services," Artificial Intelligence 48:3, 261-297.

Dreyfus, Hubert L. (1992) What Computers Still Can't Do: A Critique of Artificial Reason, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Dummett, Michael (1993) Origins of Analytical Philosophy, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Duda, Richard O., Peter E. Hart, & David G. Stork (2001) Pattern Classification, second edition, John Wiley & Sons, New York.

Dunn, J. Michael (1973) "A truth value semantics for modal logic," in H. Leblanc, ed., Truth, Syntax and Modality, North-Holland, Amsterdam, pp. 87-100.


Eco, Umberto (1979) A Theory of Semiotics, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Eco, Umberto (1986) Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Eco, Umberto (1990) The Limits of Interpretation, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Eddington, Arthur Stanley (1928) The Nature of the Physical World, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Einstein, Albert (1905) "Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter Körper," "On the electrodynamics of moving bodies," in Einstein et al. (1923) pp. 35-65.

Einstein, Albert (1916) "Die Grundlage der allgemeinen Relativitätstheorie," translated as "The foundation of the general theory of relativity" in Einstein et al. (1923) pp. 109-164.

Einstein, Albert (1921) The Meaning of Relativity, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, fifth edition, 1956.

Einstein, A., H. A. Lorentz, H. Weyl, & H. Minkowski (1923) The Principle of Relativity, Dover Publications, New York.

Einstein, Albert (1944) "Remarks on Bertrand Russell's Theory of Knowledge", in P. A. Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of Bertrand Russell, Library of Living Philosophers.

Eklund, Peter W., Gerard Ellis, & G. Mann, eds. (1996) Conceptual Structures:  Knowledge Representation as Interlingua, LNAI 1115, Springer-Verlag, Berlin,

Ellis, Gerard (1992) "Compiled hierarchical retrieval," in Nagle et al. (1992) pp. 271-294.

Ellis, Gerard, Robert A. Levinson, & Peter J. Robinson (1994) "Managing complex objects in Peirce," International J. of Human-Computer Studies, vol. 41, pp. 109-148.

Engel, Joshua (1999) Programming for the Java Virtual Machine, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Englebretsen, George (1990) Essays on the Philosophy of Fred Sommers, Edwin Mellen Press, Lewiston, NY. Semantic Principles, Oxford University Press, New York.

Erdmann, Michael (1998) "Formal concept analysis to learn from Sisyphus-III Material," Proceedings of KAW'98, Calgary.

Esch, John, & Robert A. Levinson (1995) "An Implementation Model for Contexts and Negation in Conceptual Graphs", in G. Ellis, R. A. Levinson, & W. Rich, eds., Conceptual Structures: Applications, Implementation, and Theory, LNAI 954, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 247-262.

Esch, John, & Robert A. Levinson (1996) "Propagating truth and detecting contradiction in conceptual graph databases," in Eklund et al. (1996) pp. 229-247.

Esposito, Joseph L. (1999) Peirce's Theory of Semiosis: Toward a Logic of Mutual Affection.

Evans, Thomas G. (1963) A Heuristic Program to Solve Geometric-Analogy Problems, abridged version in Minsky (1968), pp. 271-353.


Fahlman, Scott E. (1979) NETL: A System for Representing and Using Real-World Knowledge, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Fargues, Jean, Marie Claude Landau, Anne Dugourd, & Laurent Catach, (1986) "Conceptual graphs for semantics and knowledge processing," IBM Journal of Research and Development 30:1, 70-79.

Farmer, William M., Joshua D. Guttman1, F. Javier Thayer Fábrega (1996) "IMPS: An Updated System Description," in M. McRobbie & J. Slaney, eds., Automated Deduction, CADE-13, LNCS 1104, Springer, Berlin, pp. 298-302.

Farmer, William M. (2000) "An infrastructure for intertheory reasoning," in D. McAllester, ed., Automated Deduction, CADE-17, LNCS 1831, Springer, Berlin, pp. 115-131.

Fauconnier, Gilles, & Mark Turner (2002) The Way We Think:  Conceptual Blending and the Mind's Hidden Complexities, Basic Books, New York.

Fellbaum, Christiane, ed. (1998) WordNet: An Electronic Lexical Database, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Fikes, Richard E., & Nils J. Nilsson (1971) "STRIPS: A new approach to the application of theorem proving to problem solving," Artificial Intelligence 2, 189-208.

Fillmore, Charles J. (1968) "The case for case" in E. Bach & R. T. Harms, eds., Universals in Linguistic Theory, Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, 1-88.

Fillmore, Charles J., & Collin F. Baker (2001) "Frame semantics for text understanding," in Proc. WordNet and Other Lexical Resources, ACL Workshop, Pittsburgh.

Findler, Nicholas V., ed. (1979) Associative Networks: Representation and Use of Knowledge by Computers, Academic Press, New York.

Fodor, Jerry A. (1975) The Language of Thought, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Forbus, Kenneth D., Dedre Gentner, & Keith Law (1995) "MAC/FAC: A Model of Similarity-Based Retrieval," Cognitive Science 19:2, 141-205.

Forbus, Kenneth D., Thomas Mostek, & Ron Ferguson (2002) "An analogy ontology for integrating analogical processing and first-principles reasoning," Proceedings of IAAI-02 pp. 878-885.

Förster, Eckart (2000) Kant's Final Synthesis: An Essay on the Opus postumum, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Fox, Chris, & Shalom Lappin (2005) Foundations of Intensional Semantics, Blackwell, Oxford.

Freddoso, Alfred J. (1980) "Ockham's theory of truth conditions," in Ockham (P) pp. 1-76.

Freeman, Eugene, ed. (1983) The Relevance of Charles Peirce, Monist Library of Philosophy, LaSalle, IL.

Freeman, Walter J. (2000) "Mesoscopic neurodynamics: From neuron to brain," Journal of Physiology 94, 303-322.

Frege, Gottlob (1879) Begriffsschrift, English translation in J. van Heijenoort, ed. (1967) From Frege to Gödel, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 1-82.

Frege, Gottlob (1884) Die Grundlagen der Arithmetik, tr. by J. L. Austin as The Foundations of Arithmetic, Blackwell, Oxford, 1953.

Friedland, Noah S., Paul G. Allen, Gavin Matthews, Michael Witbrock, David Baxter, Jon Curtis, Blake Shepard, Pierluigi Miraglia, Jürgen Angele, Steffen Staab, Eddie Moench, Henrik Oppermann, Dirk Wenke, David Israel, Vinay Chaudhri, Bruce Porter, Ken Barker, James Fan, Shaw Yi Chaw, Peter Yeh, Dan Tecuci, & Peter Clark (2004) "Project Halo: towards a digital Aristotle," AI Magazine 25:4, 29-48.

Friedman, Michael (1992) Kant and the Exact Sciences, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Frijda, N. H., & A. D. de Groot, eds. (1981) Otto Selz: His Contribution to Psychology, Mouton, The Hague.

Frost, Robert (1963) A Lover's Quarrel with the World (film), WGBH Educational Foundation, Boston.

Fuchs, Norbert E., Uta Schwertel, Rolf Schwitter (1998) "Attempto Controlled English — not just another logic specification language," Proceedings LOPSTR'98, Manchester.

Fuchs, Norbert E., Uta Schwertel, Rolf Schwitter (1999) Attempto Controlled English (ACE), Language Manual, Version 3.0, Technical Report ifi-99.03, University of Zurich.

Fulton, James A. (1992) "Enterprise integration using the Semantic Unification Meta-Model," in Petrie (1992) pp. 278-289.


Gabbay, Dov M. (1994) What is a Logical System, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Gabbay, Dov M., C. J. Hogger, & J. A. Robinson (1995) Handbook of Logic in Artificial Intelligence and Logic Programming, Vol. 4, Epistemic and Temporal Reasoning, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Gallaire, Hervé, & Jack Minker, eds. (1978) Logic and Data Bases, Plenum Press, New York.

Galton, Antony (1995) "Time and change for AI," in Gabbay et al. (1995) pp. 175-240.

Gamma, Erich, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, & John Vlissides (1994) Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Gangemi, A., N. Guarino, C. Masolo, & A. Oltramari (2003) "Sweeting WordNet with DOLCE," AI Magazine 24:3.

Ganter, Bernhard, & Rudolf Wille (1999) Formal Concept Analysis: Mathematical Foundations, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Gärdenfors, Peter (1988) Knowledge in Flux: Modeling the Dynamics of Epistemic States, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Gärdenfors, Peter (2000) Conceptual Spaces: The Geometry of Thought, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Gärdenfors, Peter, & Mary Anne Williams (2001) "Reasoning about categories in conceptual spaces," Proc. IJCAI'01, pp. 385-392.

Gärdenfors, Peter (2003) How Homo Became Sapient: The Evolution of Thought, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Gärdenfors, Peter, & David Makinson (1988) "Revision of knowledge systems using epistemic entrenchment," Proc. of Conf. on Theoretical Aspects of Reasoning about Knowledge, Almaden.

Gärdenfors, Peter, & David Makinson (199x) "Nonmonotonic inference based on exceptions," Artificial Intelligence 65, pp. 197-245.

Gärdenfors, Peter, & Mary Anne Williams (2001) "Reasoning about categories in conceptual spaces," Proc. IJCAI'01, pp. 385-392.

Gardner, Martin (1958) Logic Machines and Diagrams, McGraw-Hill Book Co., New York.

Garner, Brian J., & Tsui, Eric (1988) "General purpose inference engine for canonical graph models," Knowledge Based Systems 1:5, pp. 266-278.

Geach, Peter T. (1960) "Identity," Review of Metaphysics 69:2, reprinted in Geach (1972) pp. 238-249.

Geach, Peter T. (1962) Reference and Generality, Cornell University Press, Ithaca.

Geach, Peter T. (1972) Logic Matters, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Geertz, Clifford (1983) Local Knowledge, Basic Books, New York.

Geldard, Richard (2000) Remembering Heraclitus, Lindisfarne Books.

Gelernter, David (1985) "Generative communication in Linda," ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems, pp. 80-112.

Gell-Mann, Murray (1994) The Quark and the Jaguar, W. H. Freeman & Co., New York.

Genesereth, Michael R., & Richard Fikes, eds. (1998) Knowledge Interchange Format (KIF), draft proposed American National Standard, NCITS.T2/98-004. Available at

Gentzen, Gerhard (1935) "Untersuchungen über das logische Schließen," translated as "Investigations into logical deduction" in The Collected Papers of Gerhard Gentzen, ed. and translated by M. E. Szabo, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1969, pp. 68-131.

Gerbé, Olivier, & M. Perron (1995) "Presentation definition language using conceptual graphs," in G. Ellis, R. A. Levinson, & W. Rich, eds., Conceptual Structures: Applications, Implementation, and Theory, LNAI 954, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Gerbé, Olivier, B. Guay, & M. Perron (1996) "Using conceptual graphs for methods modeling," in Eklund et al. (1996) pp. 161-174.

Gerbé, Olivier (1997) "Conceptual graphs for corporate knowledge management," in D. Lukose, H. Delugach, M. Keeler, L. Searle, & J. Sowa, eds., Conceptual Structures: Fulfilling Peirce's Dream, LNAI 1257, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 474-488.

Gerbé, Olivier, R. Keller, & G. Mineau (1998) "Conceptual graphs for representing business processes in corporate memories," in M-L Mugnier & Michel Chein, eds., Conceptual Structures: Theory, Tools, and Applications, LNAI 1453, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 401-415.

Gerbé, Olivier, & Brigitte Kerhervé (1998) "Modeling and metamodeling requirements for knowledge management," in Proc. of OOPSLA'98 Workshops, Vancouver.

Gerbé, Olivier (2000) Un Modèle uniforme pour la Modélisation et la Métamodélisation d'une Mémoire d'Entreprise, PhD Dissertation, Département d'informatique et de recherche opérationelle, Université de Montréal.

Gergely, Tamás, & László Úry (1991) First-Order Programming Theories, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Giarratano, Joseph, & Gary Riley (1994) Expert Systems: Principles and Programming, second edition, PWS Publishing Co., Boston.

Ginsberg, Matthew L., ed. (1987) Readings in Nonmonotonic Reasoning, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA.

Ginsberg, Matthew L. (1989a) "Universal planning: an (almost) universally bad idea," AI Magazine 10:4, 40-44.

Ginsberg, Matthew L. (1989b) "Universal planning research: a good or bad idea?," AI Magazine 10:4, 61-62.

Giunchiglia, Fausto, & Luciano Serafini (1994) "Multilanguage hierarchical logics, or how to do without modal logics," Artificial Intelligence 65:1 pp. 29-70.

Glasgow, Janice I. (1993) "The imagery debate revisited: A computational perspective," Computational Intelligence, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 309-333.

Glasgow, Janice, N. Hari Narayanan, & B. Chandrasekaran, eds. (1995) Diagrammatic Reasoning: Cognitive and Computational Perspectives, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Gödel, Kurt (1930) "The completeness of the axioms of the functional calculus of logic," in van Heijenoort (1967) 582-591.

Gödel, Kurt (1931) "On formally undecidable propositions of Principia Mathematica and related systems," in van Heijenoort (1967) 592-617.

Gödel, Kurt (1961) "The modern development of the foundations of mathematics in the light of philosophy," in K. Gödel, Collected Works, Volume III, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Goguen, Joseph (1999) "An introduction to algebraic semiotics, with applications to user interface design," in C. Nehaniv, ed., Computation for Metaphors, Analogy and Agents, LNAI 1562, Springer, Berlin, 242-291.

Goguen, Joseph (2006) "Ontotheology, Ontology, and Society," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies,

Goldstein, I., & B. Roberts (1977) "NUDGE: A knowledge-based scheduling program," Proc. of the Fifth IJCAI, pp. 257-263.

Goldstine, Herman H., & John von Neumann (1947) Planning and coding of problems for an electronic computing instrument, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ.

Good, Irving John (1965) "Speculations concerning the first ultraintelligent machine" in F. L. Alt & M. Rubinoff, eds., Advances in Computers 6, Academic Press, New York, 31-88.

Goodman, Nelson (1951) The Structure of Appearance, Bobbs-Merrill Co., New York. Second edition 1966.

Goodman, Nelson (1956) "A world of individuals," reprinted in Goodman (1972) pp. 155-172.

Goodman, Nelson (1963) "The significance of Der logische Aufbau der Welt," in P. A. Schilpp, ed., The Philosophy of Rudolf Carnap, Open Court, La Salle, IL, pp. 545-558.

Goodman, Nelson (1968) Languages of Art, Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis.

Goodman, Nelson (1972) Problems and Projects, Bobbs-Merrill Co., New York.

Goldberg, Adele E. (1995) Constructions: A Construction Grammar Approach to Argument Structure, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Goldblatt, Robert (1984) Topoi: The Categorial Analysis of Logic, North Holland, New York.

Goldfarb, Warren (1979) "Logic in the twenties: the nature of the quantifier," J. of Symbolic Logic 49, 351-368.

Gopnik, Alison, Clark Glymour, & David Sobel (1999) "Causal maps and Bayes nets: A cognitive and computational account of theory formation," presented at the International Congress on Logic, Methodology and Philosophy of Science, Krakow. Available at

Grandin, Temple (1995) Thinking in Pictures and Other Reports from my Life with Autism, Vintage Books, New York.

Grandin, Temple, & Catherine Johnson (2004) Animals in Translation: Using the Mysteries of Autism to Decode Animal Behavior, Scribner, New York.

Gray, J. Glenn (1977) "Heidegger on remembering and remembering Heidegger," Man and World, vol. 10, pp. 77

Grenander, Ulf (1993) General Pattern Theory, Oxford University Press

Grice, H. Paul (1975) "Logic and conversation," in P. Cole & J. Morgan, eds., Syntax and Semantics 3: Speech Acts, Academic Press, New York, pp. 41-58.

Griethuysen, J. J. van, ed., (1987) Concepts and Terminology for the Conceptual Schema and the Information Base, Technical Report ISO/TC97/TR9007, International Standards Organization, Geneva.

Griffin, David Ray, John B. Cobb Jr., Marcus P. Ford, Pete A. Y. Gunter, & Peter Ochs (1993) Founders of Constructive Postmodern Philosophy: Peirce, James, Bergson, Whitehead, and Hartshorne, SUNY Press, Albany.

Groenendijk, Jeroen, & Martin Stokhof (1991), "Dynamic Predicate Logic", Linguistics and Philosophy 14:1, pp. 39-100.

Grosof, Benjamin N. (1992) Updating and Structure in Nonmonotonic Theories, PhD Dissertation, Computer Science Department, Stanford University.

Grosof, Benjamin N. (1997) "Building commercial agents," Proceedings PAAM'97. For more information and copies of the software, see

Grosof, Benjamin N. (1997) "Prioritized conflict handling for logic programs," Proc. International Symposium on Logic Programming. Extended version available as IBM Research Report RC 20836,

Grosz, Barbara J., & Candace L. Sidner (1986) "Attention, intentions, and the structure of discourse," Computational Linguistics, 12:3, pp. 175-205.

Gruber, Jeffrey S. (1965) Studies in Lexical Relations, PhD dissertation, MIT. Revised version published as Lexical Structures in Syntax and Semantics, North Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1976.

Gruber, Thomas R. (1993) "A translation approach to portable ontology specifications," Knowledge Acquisition, vol. 5, pp. 199-220.

Grune, Dick, & Ceriel J. H. Jacobs (1990) Parsing Techniques — A Practical Guide, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England.

Grünwald, Peter (1997) "Causation and nonmonotonic temporal reasoning," in G. Brewka et al., KI-97: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, LNAI 1303, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 159-170. Extended presentation available in Technical Report INS-R9701,

Guarino, Nicola (1998) "Some ontological principles for designing upper level lexical resources," First International Conference on Language Resources and Evaluation, Granada, Spain.

Guarino, Nicola, ed. (1998) Formal Ontology in Information Systems, IOS Press, Amsterdam.

Guarino, Nicola, & Roberto Poli, eds. (1995) International J. of Human-Computer Studies Special issue on formal ontology, vol. 43, nos. 5/6.

Guarino, Nicola, Stefano Borgo, & Claudio Masolo (1997) "Logical modeling of product knowledge: towards a well-founded semantics for STEP," in Proceedings of the European Conference on Product Data Technology, Sophia Antipolis, France.

Guha, R. V. (1991) Contexts: A Formalization and Some Applications, PhD dissertation, Stanford, and Technical Report ACT-CYC-423-91, MCC, Austin, TX.

Guha, R. V., & Douglas B. Lenat (1994) "Enabling agents to work together," Communications of the ACM, vol. 37, no. 7, pp. 127-142.

Guha, R. V., & Patrick J. Hayes (2002) "LBase: Semantics for languages of the semantic web.


Haack, Susan (1978) Philosophy of Logics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Haack, Susan (1992) "'Extreme scholastic realism': its relevance for philsophy of science today," Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 28, 19-50.

Haack, Susan (1996) Deviant Logic, Fuzzy Logic, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Haas, Norman, & Gary G. Hendrix (1983) "Learning by being told," in R. S. Michalski, J. G. Carbonell, & T. M. Mitchell, Machine Learning, Tioga Publishing Co., Palo Alto, 405-427.

Hadamard, Jacques (1945) The Psychology of Invention in the Mathematical Field, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Hallaq, Wael B. (1993) Ibn Taymiyya Against the Greek Logicians, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Halliday, M.A.K. & R. Hasan (1976) Cohesion in English, Longman, London.

Halliday, M.A.K. & Christian M.I.M. Matthiessen (1999) Construing Experience Through Meaning: A Language-Based Approach to Cognition, Cassell, London.

Hamlyn, D. W. (1968) "Translation, introduction, and notes to Aristotle's De Anima," Clarendon Press, Oxford. Second edition 1993.

Hamming, Richard (1962) Numerical Methods for Scientists and Engineers, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Hanks, Steven, & Drew McDermott (1987) "Nonmonotonic logic and temporal projection," Artificial Intelligence 33, 379-412.

Hansen, Hans Robert, Robert Mühlbacher, & Gustaf Neumann (1992) Begriffsbasierte Integration von Systemanalysemethoden, Physica-Verlag, Heidelberg. Distributed by Springer-Verlag.

Harabagiu, Sanda M., & Dan I. Moldovan (1998) "Knowledge processing on an extended WordNet," in Fellbaum (1998) pp. 379-405.

Harnad, Stevan (1990) "The symbol grounding problem," Physica D 42, 335-346.

Harré, Rom (1989) The Philosophies of Science, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Harris, Randy Allen (1993) The Linguistics Wars, Oxford University Press, New York.

Harris, Roy (1988) Language, Saussure, and Wittgenstein: How to Play Games with Words, Routledge, London.

Harris, Zellig (1968) Mathematical Structures of Language, Wiley, New York.

Harris, Zellig (1982) "Discourse and sublanguage," in Kittredge & Lehrberger (1982) 231-236.

Hartley, Roger T., & Michael J. Coombs (1991) "Reasoning with graph operations," in J. F. Sowa, ed., Principles of Semantic Networks: Explorations in the Representation of Knowledge, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA, pp. 487-505.

Hattiangadi, Jagdish N. (1987) How is Language Possible? Philosophical Reflections on the Evolution of Language and Knowledge, Open Court, La Salle, IL.

Hawkes, Terence (1977) Structuralism and Semiotics, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Hawkins, Benjamin S. (1981) "Peirce's and Frege's systems of notation," Proc. C. S. Peirce Bicentennial International Congress, Texas Tech Press, Lubbock, TX.

Hawkins, Jeff (2004) On Intelligence, Henry Holt & Co., New York.

Hayes, Patrick J. (1977) "In defense of logic," in Proc. of the Fifth IJCAI, pp. 559-565.

Hayes, Patrick J. (1979) "The logic of frames," in D. Metzing, ed., Frame Conceptions and Text Understanding, Walter de Gruyter & Co., Berlin. Reprinted in Brachman & Levesque (1985) pp. 287-295.

Hayes, Patrick J. (1985) "Naive physics I: Ontology for liquids," in Hobbs & Moore (1985) pp. 71-107.

Hayes, Patrick J., & Chris Menzel (2001) "A semantics for the Knowledge Interchange Format," IJCAI 2001 Workshop on the IEEE Standard Upper Ontology.

Hays, David G. (1964) "Dependency theory: a formalism and some observations," Language 40(4), 511-525.

Hegel, Georg Wilhelm Friedrich (1831) Wissenschaft der Logik, translated by A. V. Miller as Hegel's Science of Logic, Humanities Press International, Atlantic Highlands, NJ.

Heidegger, Martin (1927) Sein und Zeit translated by J. Hofstadter & E. Robinson as Being and Time, Harper Collins Publishers, New York.

Heidegger, Martin (1975) Die Grundprobleme der Phänomenologie, translated by A. Hofstadter as The Basic Problems of Phenomenology, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Heidegger, Martin (1978) Metaphysische Anfangsgründe der Logik im Ausgang von Leibniz, translated by M. Heim as The Metaphysical Foundations of Logic, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Heim, Irene R. (1982) The Semantics of Definite and Indefinite Noun Phrases, PhD Dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. Published (1988) Garland, New York.

Heflin, Jeff, James Hendler, & Sean Luke (1999) SHOE: A Knowledge Representation Language for Internet Applications, Technical Report CS-TR-4078 (UMIACS TR-99-71), Dept. of Computer Science, University of Maryland at College Park.

Hendler, James A. (1987) Integrating Marker Passing and Problem Solving, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

Hendler, James A. (1992) "Massively-parallel marker-passing in semantic networks," in Lehmann (1992) pp. 277-291.

Hendrick, Vincent F. (2001) The Convergence of Scientific Knowledge: A View from the Limit, Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Hendrix, Gary G. (1975) "Expanding the utility of semantic networks through partitioning," in Proc. IJCAI-75, 115-121.

Hendrix, Gary G. (1979) "Encoding knowledge in partitioned networks," in Findler (1979) pp. 51-92.

Henkin, Leon (1961) "Some remarks on infinitely long formulas," in Infinitistic Methods: Proc. Symposium on Foundations of Mathematics, Pergamon Press, London, pp. 176-183.

Henry, Granville C. (1993) Forms of Concrescence: Alfred North Whitehead's Philosophy and Computer Programming, Bucknell University Press, Lewisburg.

Heraclitus, Fragments, in C. H. Kahn, The Art and Thought of Heraclitus, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1979.

Hess, J. & W. Cyre (1999) "A CG-based Behavior Extraction System," in W. Tepfenhart & W. Cyre, eds. (1999) Conceptual Structures: Standards and Practices, LNAI 1640, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Hewitt, Carl (1971) Description and Theoretical Analysis (using Schemata) of PLANNER, PhD dissertation, AI Memo 258, MIT, Cambridge, MA.

Hilbert, David (1899) Grundlagen der Geometrie, translated as The Foundations of Geometry, Open Court Classics, La Salle, IL, 1971.

Hilbert, David, & Wilhelm Ackermann (1928) Grundzüge der theoretischen Logik, translated as Principles of Mathematical Logic, Chelsea Publishing, New York, 1950.

Hill, Patricia M., & John W. Lloyd (1994) The Gödel Programming Language, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Hilpinen, Risto (1982) "On C. S. Peirce's theory of the proposition: Peirce as a precursor of game-theoretical semantics," The Monist 65, 182-88. Reprinted in Freeman (1983) pp. 264-270.

Hintikka, Jaakko (1961) "Modality and quantification," Theoria 27, 110-128.

Hintikka, Jaakko (1963) "The modes of modality," Acta Philosophica Fennica, Modal and Many-valued Logics, pp. 65-81.

Hintikka, Jaako, ed. (1969) The Philosophy of Mathematics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Hintikka, Jaakko (1973) "Surface semantics: definition and its motivation," in H. Leblanc, ed., Truth, Syntax and Modality, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 128-147.

Hintikka, Jaakko (1973) Logic, Language Games, and Information, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Hintikka, Jaakko (1997) The place of C. S. Peirce in the history of logical theory, in Brunning & Forster (1997) pp. 13-33.

Hintikka, Jaakko, & Jack Kulas (1985) The Game of Language: Studies in Game-Theoretical Semantics and its Applications, D. Reidel, Dordrecht.

Hirota, K., ed. (1993) Industrial Applications of Fuzzy Technology, Springer-Verlag, New York.

Hirschman, Lynette, & Marc Vilain (1995) Extracting Information from the MUC, ACL Tutorial, MIT, Cambridge, MA.

Hirst, Graeme (1987) Semantic Interpretation and the Resolution of Ambiguity, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Hirst, Graeme (1988) "Resolving lexical ambiguity with spreading activation and Polaroid words," in Small et al. (1988) 73-107.

Hirst, Graeme, & David St-Onge (1998) "Lexical chains as representations of context for the detection and correction of malapropisms," in Fellbaum (1998) pp. 305-351.

Hirst, Graeme (2002) "Negotiation, compromise, and collaboration in interpersonal and human-computer conversations," Proc. Workshop on Meaning Negotiation, AAAI-02, available at

Hoare, C. A. R. (1969) "An axiomatic basis for computer programming," Communications of the ACM 12:10, pp. 567-580, 583.

Hobbs, Jerry R. (1995) "Sketch of an ontology underlying the way we talk about the world," International Journal of Human-Computer Studies 43, pp. 819-830.

Hobbs, Jerry R., & Robert C. Moore, eds. (1985) Formal Theories of the Commonsense World, Ablex Publishing Co., Norwood, NJ.

Hobbs, Jerry R., Mark Stickel, Douglas Appelt, & Paul Martin (1993) "Interpretation as abduction," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 63, no. 1-2, pp. 69-142.

Hobbs, Jerry R., Douglas Appelt, John Bear, David Israel, Megumi Kameyama, Mark Stickel, & Mabry Tyson (1997) "FASTUS: A cascaded finite-state transducer for extracting information from natural-language text," in E. Roche & Y. Schabes, eds., Finite-State Language Processing, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 383-406.

Hoey, Michael (1983) On the Surface of Discourse, George Allen & Unwin, London.

Hoey, Michael (2001) Textual Interaction: An Introduction to Written Discourse Analysis, Routledge, London.

Hoopes, James, ed. (1991) Peirce on Signs, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.

Paul Hopper (1987) "Emergent Grammar", Berkeley Linguistics Society, vol. 13 (1987), 139-157.

Hornstein, Norman (1985) Logic as Grammar, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Horrocks, Ian, Frank van Harmelen, Peter Patel-Schneider, eds. (2001) DAML+OIL Specifications,

Houser, Nathan, Don D. Roberts, & James Van Evra, eds. (1997) Studies in the Logic of Charles Sanders Peirce, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Houser, Nathan (2005) "Peirce in the 21st century," Transactions of the Charles S. Peirce Society 41:4, p. 729.

Hughes, G. E., & M. J. Cresswell (1968) An Introduction to Modal Logic, Methuen, London.

Hulswit, Menno (1998) A Semeiotic Account of Causation: The 'Cement of the Universe' from a Peircean Perspective, PhD dissertation, Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen.

Hulswit, Menno (2000) "Natural classes and causation," in Digital Encyclopedia of Charles S. Peirce.

Hume, David (1748) An Inquiry Concerning Human Understanding, Liberal Arts Press, New York.

Hunt, Earl B., (1962) Concept Learning: An Information Processing Problem, Wiley, New York.

Husserl, Edmund (1900-01) Logische Untersuchungen, second edition translated by J. N. Findlay as Logical Investigations, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1973.

Husserl, Edmund (1913) Ideen auf einer reinen Phänomenologie und phänomenologischen Philosophie, translated by F. Kersten as Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy, Kluwer, Dordrecht, 1982.

Hutchins, W. John (1986) Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future, Ellis Horwood, Chichester, England.


Ifrah, Georges (2000) The Universal History of Numbers from Prehistory to the Invention of the Computer, Wiley & Sons, New York.

ISO/IEC (1997) High-Level Petri Nets — Concepts, Definitions, and Graphical Notation, Committee Draft ISO/IEC 15909, version 3.4.

Israel, David J. (1980) "What's wrong with nonmonotonic logic?" Proc. AAAI-80, 99-101.

Israel, David J. (1993) "The very idea of dynamic semantics: An overview from the underground," Proc. 9th Amsterdam Colloquium, Amsterdam.

Iwanska, Lucja, & Stuart C. Shapiro (2001) Natural Language Processing and Knowledge Representation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.


Jackendoff, Ray S. (1972) Semantic Interpretation in Generative Grammar, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Jackendoff, Ray (1977) X-bar Syntax: A Study of Phrase Structure, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Jackendoff, Ray S. (1990) Semantic Structures, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Jackendoff, Ray (1992) Languages of the Mind,

Jackendoff, Ray (2002) Foundations of Language:  Brain, Meaning, Grammar, Evolution, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Jacobs, Paul, ed. (1992) Text-Based Intelligent Systems, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

Jakobson, Roman (1978) Six Lectures on Sound and Meaning, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Jakobson, Roman (1980) The Framework of Language, Rackham School of Graduate Studies, Ann Arbor, MI.

James, William (1890) The Principles of Psychology, Two volumes, Dover Publications, New York.

James, William (1897) The Will to Believe and Other Essays, Longmans, Green & Co.

Janik, Allan, & Stephen Toulmin (1973) Wittgenstein's Vienna, Elephant Paperbacks, Chicago, 1996.

Jensen, Karen, & George E. Heidorn (1983) "The fitted parse: 100% parsing capability in a syntactic parser of English," Proceedings of the Conference on Applied Natural Language Processing, Association for Computational Linguistics, Santa Monica, CA, 93-98.

Jensen, Karen, George E. Heidorn, & Stephen D. Richardson, eds. (1993) Natural Language Processing: The PLNLP Approach, Kluwer, Boston, 1993.

Jensen, Kurt (1992) Coloured Petri Nets, vol. 1, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Johnson, David E., & Shalom Lappin (1999) Local constraints vs. Economy, CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA.

Johnson, Mark (1987) The Body in the Mind, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Johnson, Stephen B. (1997) "Conceptual graph grammar — a simple formalism for sublanguage," Methods of Information 37, 345-352.

Joseph, Sister Miriam (1937) The Trivium: The Liberal Arts of Logic, Grammar, and Rhetoric, Third edition 1948, reprinted by Paul Dry Books, 2002.


Kahn, Charles H. (1979) The Art and Thought of Heraclitus, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kamp, Hans (1981a) "Events, discourse representations, and temporal references," Langages 64, 39-64.

Kamp, Hans (1981b) "A theory of truth and semantic representation," in Formal Methods in the Study of Language, ed. by J. A. G. Groenendijk, T. M. V. Janssen, & M. B. J. Stokhof, Mathematical Centre Tracts, Amsterdam, 277-322.

Kamp, Hans, & Uwe Reyle (1993) From Discourse to Logic, Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Kanazawa, Makoto, & Christopher J. Piñón, eds. (1994) Dynamics, Polarity, and Quantification, CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA.

Kant, Immanuel (1783) Wiener Logik, in Kants gesammelte Schriften, vol. 24, De Gruyter & Reimer, Berlin, 1910-1983. English version in Lectures on Logic, The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant in Translation, translated by J. M. Young, P. Guyer, & A. W. Wood.

Kant, Immanuel (1787) Kritik der reinen Vernunft, translated by N. Kemp Smith as Critique of Pure Reason, St. Martin's Press, New York.

Kant, Immanuel (1800) Logik: Ein Handbuch zu Vorlesungen, translated as Logic by R. S. Hartmann & W. Schwarz, Dover Publications, New York, 1988; also translated as Lectures on Logic by J. M. Young, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1992.

Kaplan, David (1977) "Demonstratives: an essay on the semantics, logic, metaphysics, and epistemology of demonstratives and other indexicals," reprinted in Almog et al. (1989) pp. 481-566.

Kaplan, David (1989) "Afterthoughts," in Almog et al. (1989) pp. 565-614.

Karp, Peter D. (1992) "The design space of frame knowledge representation systems," Technical Note No. 520, SRI International, Menlo Park, CA.

Karttunen, Lauri (1976) "Discourse referents," in J. McCawley, ed., Syntax and Semantics vol. 7, Academic Press, New York, pp. 363-385.

Kasper, Robert T. (1993) "Typed feature constraint systems," in H. Trost, ed., Feature Formalisms and Linguitic Ambiguity, Ellis Horwood, New York, pp. 1-19.

Katz, Jerrold J. (1966) The Philosophy of Language, Harper & Row, New York.

Katz, Jerrold J., & Jerry A. Fodor (1963) "The structure of a semantic theory," Language 39, 170-210. Reprinted in J. A. Fodor & J. J. Katz, eds. (1964) The Structure of Language, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, pp. 479-518.

Kay, Paul (1997) Words and the Grammar of Context, CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA.

Kaye, Sharon (1998) "Russell, Strawson, and William of Ockham," Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, Boston.

Kayser, Daniel (1988) "What kind of thing is a concept?" Computational Intelligence 4:2, 158-165.

Kehler, Andrew (2002) Coherence, Reference, and the Theory of Grammar, CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA.

Kempson, Ruth, Wilfried Meyer-Viol, & Dov Gabbay (2001) Dynamic Syntax:  The Flow of Language Understanding, Blackwell, Oxford.

Kent, Stuart, Andy Evans, & Bernhard Rumpe, eds. (1999) UML Semantics FAQ, available at

Ketner, Kenneth Laine, ed. (1995) Peirce and Contemporary Thought, Fordham University Press, New York.

Ketner, Kenneth Laine, & James Edward Cook (1979) Charles Sanders Peirce: Contributions to The Nation Part Three: 1901-1908, Texas Tech University, Lubbock.

Kilgarriff, Adam (1997) "I don't believe in word senses," Computers and the Humanities, 31(2):91-113.

Kilgarriff, Adam (2001) "Generative lexicon meets corpus data: the case of nonstandard word uses," in The Language of Word Meaning, eds Bouillon and Busa, Cambridge Univiversity Press; pp. 312-328.

Kim, Jaegwon (1995) "Causation," in R. Audi, ed., The Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Second edition, 1999, pp. 125-127.

Kim, Jaegwon, & Ernest Sosa (1999) Metaphysics, an Anthology, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.

King, Margaret, ed. (1983) Parsing Natural Language, Academic Press, New York.

Kirk, G. S., J. E. Raven, M. Schofield (1983) The Presocratic Philosophers, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kirkham, Richard L. (1992) Theories of Truth: A Critical Introduction, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Kittredge, Richard, & John Lehrberger, eds. (1982) Sublanguage: Studies of Language in Restricted Semantic Domains, de Gruyter, New York.

Klein, Sheldon, & Robert F. Simmons (1963) "Syntactic dependence and the computer generation of coherent discourse," Mechanical Translation 7.

Kluge, Werner (1992) The Organization of Reduction, Data Flow, and Control Flow Systems, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Knowlson, James (1975) Universal Language Schemes in England and France, 1600-1800, University of Toronto Press, Toronto.

Konolige, Kurt (1997) "COLBERT: A language for adaptive control in SAPHIRA," in Brewka et al. (1997) pp. 31-52.

Kolodner, Janet L. (1993) Case-Based Reasoning, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA.

Kowalski, Robert A. (1979) Logic for Problem Solving, North Holland, New York.

Kowalski, Robert A. (1994) "Logic without model theory," in Dov M. Gabbay, ed., What is a Logical System?, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 35-71.

Kowalski, Robert A. (1995) "Using metalogic to reconcile reactive with rational agents," in K. R. Apt & F. Turini, eds. (1995) Metalogics and Logic Programming, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 227-242.

Kowalski, R. A., & M. J. Sergot (1986) "A logic-based calculus of events," New Generation Computing 4, 67-95.

Krantz, Luce, Suppes, & Tversky (1971) Foundations of Measurement, vol. I, Academic Press, New York.

Kretzmann, Norman, & Eleonore Stump, eds. (1988) The Cambridge Translations of Medieval Philosophical Texts, Volume One: Logic and the Philosophy of Language, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Kripke, Saul A. (1963a) "Semantical considerations on modal logic," Acta Philosophica Fennica, Modal and Many-valued Logics, pp. 83-94.

Kripke, Saul A. (1963b) "Semantical analysis of modal logic I," Zeitschrift für mathematische Logik und Grundlagen der Mathematik 9, 67-96.

Kripke, Saul A. (1965) "Semantical analysis of modal logic II: Non-normal modal propositional calculi," in Addison et. al. (1965) The Theory of Models, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, pp. 206-220.

Kripke, Saul A. (1977) "Speaker's reference and semantic reference," in P. A. French, T. F. Uehling, & H. K. Wettstein, eds., Contemporary Perspecives in the Philosophy of Language, University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis, pp. 6-27.

Kuipers, Benjamin J. (1984) "Commonsense reasoning about causality: deriving behavior from structure," Artificial Intelligence 24, 169-203.

Kuhl, Patricia K. (2004) "Early language acquisition: Cracking the speech code," Nature Reviews, Neuroscience 5:11, 831-843.

Kuipers, Benjamin (1994) Qualitative Reasoning: Modeling and Simulation with Incomplete Knowledge, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA. For related information, see

Kuntz, Paul Grimley (1984) Alfred North Whitehead, Twayne Publishers, Boston.


Lakoff, George (1987) Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lakoff, George, and Mark Johnson (1980) Metaphors We Live By, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lakoff, George, & Mark Johnson (1999) Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought, Basic Books, New York.

Lakoff, George, & Rafael E. Núñez (2000) Where Mathematics Comes From: How the Embodied Mind Brings Mathematics into Being, Basic Books, New York.

Lakoff, George, & Mark Turner (1989) More than Cool Reason: A Field Guide to Poetic Metaphor, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Lambert, Karel (1967) "Free logic and the concept of existence," Notre Dame Journal of Formal Logic, vol. 8, pp. 133-144.

Lambert, Karel, ed. (1991) Philosophical Applications of Free Logic, Oxford University Press, New York.

Lao-Tzu, Te Tao Ching, translated by R. G. Henricks, Ballantine Books, New York, 1989.

Laird, J. E., Newell, A., and Rosenbloom, P. S. (1987) "Soar: An architecture for general intelligence," Artificial Intelligence 33:1, 1-64.

Lappin, Shalom, ed. (1996) The Handbook of Contemporary Semantic Theory, Blackwell Publishers, Oxford.

Lawvere, F. William, & Stephen H. Schanuel (1991) Conceptual Mathematics: A first introduction to categories, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997.

LeClerc, André, & Arun Majumdar (2002) "Legacy revaluation and the making of LegacyWorks," Distributed Enterprise Architecture 5:9, Cutter Consortium, Arlington, MA.

Lehmann, Fritz, ed. (1992) Semantic Networks in Artificial Intelligence, Pergamon Press, Oxford. Also published as a special issue of Computers and Mathematics with Applications 23:6-9.

Lehmann, Fritz, & Anthony G. Cohn (1994) "The egg-yolk reliability hierarchy: Semantic data integration using sorts with prototypes," Proc. of the Conference on Information and Knowledge Management, CIKM-94, ACM Press, New York.

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm, Selections, ed. by P. P. Wiener, Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1666) "Dissertatio de arte combinatoria," Leibnizens mathematische Schriften 5, Georg Olms, Hildesheim.

Leibniz, Gottfried Wilhelm (1705) Nouveaux Essais concernant l'Entendement humain, translated as New Essays on Human Understanding, P. Remnant & J. Bennet, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1981.

Leonard, H. S., & N. Goodman (1940) "The calculus of individuals and its uses," Journal of Symbolic Logic 5, 45-55.

Lenat, Douglas B. (1995) "Cyc: A large-scale investment in knowledge infrastructure," Communications of the ACM 38:11, 33-38.

Lenat, D. B., & R. V. Guha (1990) Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Lenat, D. B., G. A. Miller, & T. Yokoi (1995) "CYC, WordNet, and EDR: Critiques and Responses," Communications of the ACM 38:11, 45-48.

Lendaris, George G. (1988a) "Neural networks, potential assistants to knowledge engineers," Heuristics 1:2.

Lendaris, George G. (1988b) "Conceptual graph knowledge systems as problem context for neural networks," Proc. ICNN-88, San Diego.

Leśniewski, Stanisław (1992) Collected Works, ed. by S. J. Surma, J. T. Srzednicki, D. J. Barnett, & V. F. Rickey, Martinus Nijhoff, The Hague.

Levesque, Hector J. (1986) "Making believers out of computers," Artificial Intelligence 30, 81-108.

Levesque, Hector J. (1989) "A knowledge-level account of abduction," Proc. IJCAI-89, 1061-1067.

Levesque, Hector, & John Mylopoulos (1979) "A procedural semantics for semantic networks," in Findler (1979) pp. 93-120.

Levesque, H. J., R. Reiter, Y. Lespérance, F. Lin, & R. Scherl (1996) "GOLOG: A logic-programming language for dynamic domains," Journal of Logic Programming.

Levi, Isaac (1980) The Enterprise of Knowledge, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Levi, Isaac (1991) The Fixation of Belief and its Undoing, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Levi, Isaac (1996) For the Sake of Argument, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Levin, Beth (1993) English Verb Classes and Alternations, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Levin, Beth, & Steven Pinker, eds. (1991) Lexical & Conceptual Semantics, Blackwell, Oxford.

Levinson, Robert A. (1989) "A self-learning, pattern-oriented chess program," International Computer Chess Association Journal, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 207-215.

Levinson, Robert A. (1992) "Pattern associativity and the retrieval of semantic networks," Computers and Mathematics with Applications, vol. 23, no. 6-9, pp. 573-600. Reprinted in Lehmann (1992).

Levinson, Robert A. (1993) "Towards domain-independent machine intelligence," in Mineau et al. (1993) pp. 254-273.

Levinson, Robert A. (1996) "General game-playing and reinforcement learning," Computational Intelligence 12:1 155-176.

Levinson, Robert A., & Gerard Ellis (1992) "Multilevel hierarchical retrieval," Knowledge Based Systems 5:3, pp. 233-244.

Levinson, Robert A., Brian Beach, Richard Snyder, Tal Dayan, & Kirack Sohn (1992) "Adaptive-predictive game-playing programs," JETAI, vol 4, pp. 315-337.

Lewis, Clarence Irving (1912) "Implication and the algebra of logic," reprinted in J. D. Goheen & J. L. Mothershead, Jr., eds., Collected Papers of Clarence Irving Lewis, Stanford University Press, Stanford.

Lewis, Clarence Irving (1918) Survey of Symbolic Logic, University of California Press, Berkeley.

Lewis, Clarence Irving, & C. H. Langford (1932) Symbolic Logic, Dover, New York.

Lewis, David K. (1986) On the Plurality of Worlds, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Lewis, David K. (1991) Parts of Classes, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Lewis, Frank A. (1991) Substance and Predication in Aristotle, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Limber, John (1973) "The genesis of complex sentences," in T. Moore, ed., Cognitive Development and the Acquisition of Language, Academic Press, New York, 169-186.

Lindley, David (2001) Boltzmann's Atom: The Great Debate that Launched a Revolution in Physics, Free Press, New York.

Liszka, James Jakób (1996) A General Introduction to the Semeiotic of Charles Sanders Peirce, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Lounesto, Pertti (1997) Clifford Algebras and Spinors, Cambridge University Press, Second edition 2001.

Lucas, George R., Jr. (1989) The Rehabilitation of Whitehead, State University of New York Press, Albany.

Łukasiewicz, Jan (1930) "Many-valued systems of propositional logic," reprinted in S. McCall, ed., Polish Logic, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 1967.

Lukose, Dickson, Harry Delugach, Mary Keeler, Leroy Searle, & John Sowa, eds. (1997) Conceptual Structures: Fulfilling Peirce's Dream, LNAI 1257, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Lull, Ramon (1303) De nova Logica, reprinted in Raimondi Lulli Opera Latina, ed. by Walter Euler, Brepols, Turnhold, Belgium, 1998.

Llull, Ramon (1303) Lògica Nova, vol. 4 of Nova Edició de les Obres de Ramon Llull, ed. by A. Bonner, Palma de Mallorca, 1998.

Lull, Ramon (1308) Ars brevis, English translation in Doctor Illuminatus: A Ramon Llull Reader, ed. by A. Bonner, Princeton University Press, Princeton, 1993.

Luria, Alexandr Romanovich (1966) Higher Cortical Functions in Man, Basic Books, New York.

Luria, Alexandr Romanovich (1968) The Mind of a Mnemonist, Basic Books, New York.

Luria, Alexandr Romanovich (1973) The Working Brain, Basic Books, New York.

Luria, Alexandr Romanovich (1976) Cognitive Development, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Luschei, E. C. (1962) The Logical Systems of Leśniewski, North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1962.

Lyons, John (1977) Semantics, 2 vols., Cambridge University Press, New York.


Mach, Ernst (1886) Beiträge zur Analyse der Empfindungen, translated as The Analysis of Sensations by C. M. Williams and Sydney Waterlow, Dover, New York.

Mackie, John L. (1974) The Cement of the Universe: A Study of Causation, Clarendon Press, Oxford, second edition 1980.

Magrini, Stefano (1987) Realizzazione di un Sistema per la Definizione semi-automatica di un Dizionario semantico per l'Analisi del Linguaggio naturale, Thesis, Università la Sapienza di Roma.

Mahesh, Kavi, Sergei Nirenburg, Jim Cowie and David Farwell (1996) "An assessment of Cyc for natural language processing," Technical Report MCCS-96-302.

Maida, Anthony S., & Stuart C. Shapiro (1982) "Intensional concepts in propositional semantic networks," Cognitive Science 6:4, 291-330.

Manetti, Giovanni (1987) Le Theorie del Segno nell' Antiquit´ classica translated by C. Richardson as Theories of the Sign in Classical Antiquity, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1993.

Mani, Inderjeet (2001) Automatic Summarization, John Benjamins Publishing Co., Philadelphia.

Mani, Inderjeet, ed. (2005) The Language of Time, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Mann, Wolfgang-Rainer (2000) The Discovery of Things: Aristotle's Categories and their Context, Princeton University Press, Princeton.

Manna, Zohar, & Amir Pnueli (1992) The Temporal Logic of Reactive and Concurrent Systems, Springer-Verlag, New York.

Manning, Christopher D., & Hinrich Schütze (1999) Foundations of Statistical Natural Language Processing, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Manzano, María (1996) Extensions of First-Order Logic, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Marcus, Ruth Barcan (1993) Modalities: Philosophical Essays, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Markov, Andrei Andreyevich (1954) Theoriya Algorifmov, translated as The Theory of Algorithms, National Science Foundation, Washington, DC, 1961.

Martins, Joao P., & Stuart C. Shapiro (1988) "A model for belief revision," Artificial Intelligence 35:1, 25-79.

Marty, Robert (1997) "76 Definitions of The Sign by C. S. Peirce," available at

Masterman, Margaret (1961) "Translation," Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, 169-216.

Masterman, Margaret (1961) "Semantic message detection for machine translation, using an interlingua," Proc. 1961 International Conf. on Machine Translation, 438-475.

Masterman, Margaret (2005) Language, Chohesion and Form, edited by Yorick Wilks, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Matilal, Bimal Krishna (1998) The Character of Logic in India, Oxford University Press, New Delhi.

McCarthy, John (1960) "Recursive functions of symbolic expressions and their computation by machine," Communications of the ACM 3:4 184-195.

McCarthy, John (1963) "Situations, actions, and causal laws," reprinted in M. Minsky, ed., Semantic Information Processing, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 410-418.

McCarthy, John (1977) "Epistemological problems of artificial intelligence," Proceedings of IJCAI-77. Reprinted in McCarthy (1990).

McCarthy, John (1978) "Formalization of two puzzles involving knowledge," Reprinted in McCarthy (1990).

McCarthy, John (1981) "History of LISP," in Wexelblatt (1981) pp. 173-197.

McCarthy, John (1982) "Common Business Communication Language," in A. Endres & J. Reetz, eds., Textverarbeitung und Bürosysteme, R. Oldenbourg Verlag, Munich.

McCarthy, John (1989) "Elephant 2000: A programming language based on speech acts,"

McCarthy, John (1990) Formalizing Common Sense, Ablex, Norwood, NJ.

McCarthy, John (1993) "Notes on formalizing context," Proc. IJCAI-93, Chambéry, France, pp. 555-560.

McCarthy, John (1997) "Modality, si! Modal logic, no!" Studia Logica 59, 29-32.

McCarthy, John, & Patrick Hayes (1969) "Some philosophical problems from the standpoint of artificial intelligence," in B. Meltzer & D. Michie, eds., Machine Learning 4, Edinburgh University Press.

McCarthy, John, & Sasa Buvac (1997) "Formalizing Context (Expanded Notes),"

McCord, Michael C. (1980) "Slot grammars," American Journal of Computational Linguistics 6:1, 31-43.

McCulloch, Warren S., & Walter Pitts (1943) "A logical calculus of the ideas immanent in nervous activity," Bulletin of Mathematical Biophysics 5, 115-133.

McDermott, Drew V. (1987) "AI, logic, and the frame problem," in Brown (1987) pp. 105-118.

Meinke, K., & J. V. Tucker (1993) Many-Sorted Logic and its Applications, Wiley & Sons, New York.

Mel'čuk, Igor A. (1973) "Towards a linguistic 'Meaning≡Text' model,' in F. Kiefer, ed., Trends in Soviet Theoretical Linguistics, Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 35-57.

Mel'čuk, Igor A. (1988) Dependency Syntax: Theory and Practice, SUNY Press, Albany.

Mill, John Stuart (1865) A System of Logic, Longmans, London.

Mill, John Stuart (1867) "Inaugural Address at St. Andrews University", reprinted in J. M. Robson, ed., John Stuart Mill, A Selection of his Works, The Odyssey Press, New York, pp. 379-420.

Miller, George A. (1995) "WordNet: A lexical database for English," Communications of the ACM 38:11, 39-41.

Miller, G. A., R. Beckwith, C. Fellbaum, D. Gross, & K. J. Miller (1990) "WordNet: An on-line lexical database," International Journal of Lexicography, 3:4, 235-312.

Milner, Robin (1999) Communicating and Mobile Systems: the π calculus, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Minsky, Marvin (1965) "Matter, mind and models," Proc. IFIP Congress 65, pp. 45-49.

Minsky, Marvin, ed. (1968) Semantic Information Processing, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Minsky, Marvin (1975) "A framework for representing knowledge," in P. Winston, ed., The Psychology of Computer Vision, McGraw-Hill, New York, 211-280.

Minsky, Marvin (1987) The Society of Mind, Simon & Schuster, New York.

Minsky, Marvin (1991) "Logical versus analogical or symbolic versus connectionist or neat versus scruffy," AI Magazine 12:2, summer 1991, pp. 34-51.

Misak, Cheryl, ed. (2004) The Cambridge Companion to Peirce, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Moffat, David, & Nico H. Frijda (1995) "Where there's a Will there's an agent," in Wooldridge & Jennings (1995a), pp. 245 ff.

Mohanty, J. N. (1982) Husserl and Frege, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Montague, Richard (1967) "On the nature of certain philosophical entities," originally published in The Monist 53 (1960), revised version in Montague (1974) pp. 148-187.

Montague, Richard (1970a) "English as a formal language," reprinted in Montague (1974), pp. 188-221.

Montague, Richard (1970b) "Universal grammar," reprinted in Montague (1974), pp. 222-246.

Montague, Richard (1970c) "The proper treatment of quantification in ordinary English," reprinted in Montague (1974), pp. 247-270.

Montague, Richard (1974) Formal Philosophy, Yale University Press, New Haven.

Morris, Charles W. (1938) Foundations of the Theory of Signs, Chicago University Press, Chicago.

Morris, Charles W. (1946) Signs, Language, and Behavior, Prentice-Hall, New York.

Mylopoulos, John (1992) "The PSN tribe," in Lehmann (1992) 223-241.


Nagel, Ernest, ed. (1962) Logic, Methodology, and Philosophy of Science, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Nagle, T. E., J. A. Nagle, L. L. Gerholz, & P. W. Eklund, eds. (1992) Conceptual Structures: Current Research and Practice, Ellis Horwood, New York.

Narayanan, Srini (1997) Embodiment in Language Understanding: Sensory-Motor Representations for Metaphoric Reasoning About Event Descriptions, Doctoral dissertation, Computer Science Division, EECS Department, University of California, Berkeley.

Narayanan, Srini (1999) "Reasoning about actions in narrative understanding," Proc. IJCAI'99, pp. 350-358.

National Physical Laboratory (1961) International Conference on Machine Translation of Languages and Applied Language Analysis, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London.

Newell, Allen (1990) Unified Theories of Cognition, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Newell, Allen, J. C. Shaw, & Herbert A. Simon (1959) "A general problem-solving program for a computer," Computers and Automation 8:7, 10-16.

Newell, Allen, & Herbert A. Simon (1961) "GPS, a program that simulates human thought," reprinted in Feigenbaum & Feldman (1963) 279-293.

Newell, Allen, & Herbert A. Simon (1972) Human Problem Solving, Prentice-Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Newman, Paula, Bonnie Chiu, Maria Fuenmayor, & Shelley Smith (1988) "Common lexicons for MT systems," Proceedings of the ELS Conference on Computational Linguistics, IBM Norway, Oslo.

Newton, Isaac (1687) Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathematica, translated by Andrew Motte as The Principia, Prometheus Books, Amherst, NY.

Nijssen, G. M., & T. A. Halpin (1989) Conceptual Schema and Relational Database Design, Prentice-Hall, New York.

Nilsson, Nils (1986) Probabilistic logic, Artificial Intelligence 28, pp. 71-87. Reprinted in Shafer & Pearl (1990).

Nirenburg, Sergei, & Victor Raskin (2004) Ontological Semantics, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Nogier, J.F. (1990) Génération de langage et graphes conceptuels, Editions Hèrmes, Paris.

Normore, Calvin G. (1999) "Some aspects of Ockham's logic," in Spade (1999) pp. 31-52.

Norvig, Peter (1989) "Marker passing as a weak method for text inferencing," Cognitive Science 13, pp. 569-620.

Novak, J. D., & D. B. Gowin (1984) Learning How to Learn. Cambridge University Press.

Nubiola, Jaime (1996) "Scholarship on the relations between Ludwig Wittgenstein and Charles S. Peirce," in I. Angelelli & M. Cerezo, eds., Proceedings of the III Symposium on the History of Logic, Gruyter, Berlin.

Nubiola, Jaime (1998) "A plea for a Peircean turn in analytic philosophy," Twentieth World Congress of Philosophy, Boston.


Oakley, Todd (2004) "Image schema," in D. Geeraerts & H. Cuyckens, eds., Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Ockham, William of (1323) Summa Logicae, Johannes Higman, Paris, 1488; the edition owned by C. S. Peirce. Also volume 1 of Opera Philosophica, ed. by P. Boehner, G. Gál, & S. Brown, Franciscan Institute, St. Bonaventure, NY, 1974.

Ockham, William of (T) Ockham's Theory of Terms translation of Part I of Ockham (1323) by M. J. Loux, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN, 1974.

Ockham, William of (P) Ockham's Theory of Propositions translation of Part II of Ockham (1323) by A. J. Freddoso & H. Schuurman, University of Notre Dame Press, Notre Dame, IN, 1980.

Ockham, William of (W) Philosophical Writings, ed. and translated by Philotheus Boehner, revised by S. F. Brown, Hackett Publishing Co., Indianapolis. Includes Latin and English selections from Ockham (1323) and other works.

Ogden, C. K., & I. A. Richards (1923) The Meaning of Meaning, Harcourt, Brace, and World, New York, 8th edition 1946.

O'Keefe, J., & L. Nadel (1979) "The hippocampus as a cognitive map," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2:4.


Palmer, Frank R. (1994) Grammatical Roles and Relations, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Partee, Barbara H. (2005) "Formal Semantics," Lectures at a workshop in Moscow.

Partee, Barbara H. (2005) Reflections of a Formal Semanticist as of Feb 2005.

Parsons, Terence (1990) Events in the Semantics of English, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Peano, Giuseppe (1889) Aritmetices principia nova methoda exposita, Bocca, Torino. Excerpt translated as Principles of mathematics presented by a new method in van Heijenoort (1967) pp.83-97.

Pearl, Judea (1986) "Fusion, propagation, and structuring in belief networks," Artificial Intelligence 29, 241-288. Reprinted in Shafer & Pearl (1990).

Pearl, Judea (1988) Probabilistic Reasoning in Intelligent Systems, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA.

Pearl, Judea (1988b) "Embracing causality in default reasoning," Artificial Intelligence 35, 259-271. Reprinted in Shafer & Pearl (1990).

Pearl, Judea (1996) "Causation, explanation, and nonmonotonic temporal reasoning," Proc TARK-VI, Morgan Kaufmann, San Mateo, CA, pp. 51-73.

Pearl, Judea (1999) "Reasoning with cause and effect," Proceedings IJCAI99.

Pearl, Judea (2000) Causality: Models, Reasoning, and Inference, Cambridge University Press.

Pearson, Karl (1892) The Grammar of Science, Walter Scott, London. Second edition 1900, third edition 1911.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1868) "On a new list of categories," Proc. of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences 7, 287-298.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1869) "Grounds of validity of the laws of logic," Journal of Speculative Philosophy 2, 193-208.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1870) "Description of a notation for the logic of relatives," reprinted in W 2:359-429.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1880) "On the algebra of logic," American Journal of Mathematics 3, 15-57. Reprinted in W 4:163-209.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1882) "Letter to O. H. Mitchell," in Peirce (W) 4.394-399.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1885) "On the algebra of logic," American Journal of Mathematics 7, 180-202. Reprinted in W 5:162-190.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1887) "Logical machines," American Journal of Psychology, vol. 1, Nov. 1887, pp. 165-170.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1891) "Review of Principles of Psychology by William James," Nation, vol. 53, p. 32.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1897-1906) Manuscripts on existential graphs. Some are reprinted in CP 4.320-584; others are summarized by Roberts (1973). See

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1898) Reasoning and the Logic of Things, The Cambridge Conferences Lectures of 1898, ed. by K. L. Ketner, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1992.

Peirce, Charles S. (1902) Logic, Considered as Semeiotic, MS L75, edited by Joseph Ransdell,

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1903) "Review of What is Meaning? by Victoria Welby and The Principles of Mathematics by Bertrand Russell," reprinted in Ketner & Cook (1979) pp. 143-145

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1903) Pragmatism as a Principle and Method of Right Thinking, The 1903 Lectures on Pragmatism, ed. by P. A. Turrisi, SUNY Press, Albany, 1997.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1904) "New Elements," in Peirce (EP) 2.300-324.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1905) "What Pragmatism Is," The Monist, reprinted in CP 5.411-36.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1906) "Prolegomena to an apology for pragmaticism," The Monist, vol. 16, pp. 492-497.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1909) Manuscript 514, with commentary by J. F. Sowa, available at

Peirce, Charles Sanders (CP) Collected Papers of C. S. Peirce, ed. by C. Hartshorne, P. Weiss, & A. Burks, 8 vols., Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1931-1958.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (EP) The Essential Peirce, ed. by N. Houser, C. Kloesel, and members of the Peirce Edition Project, 2 vols., Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1991-1998.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (NEM) New Elements of Mathematics, ed. by Carolyn Eisele, 4 vols., Mouton, The Hague, 1976.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (W) Writings of Charles S. Peirce, vols. 1-6, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1982-1993.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1953) Letters to Lady Welby, edited by I. C. Leib, Whitlock's Press, New Haven.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1955) Philosophical Writings of Peirce, edited by J. Buchler, Dover, New York.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1966) Selected Writings: Values in a Universe of Chance, edited by P. P. Weiner, Dover, New York.

Peirce, Charles Sanders (1991) Peirce on Signs: Writings on Semiotic by Charles Sanders Peirce, edited by James Hoopes, University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill, NC.

Peirce, Charles S. & Victoria Lady Welby (LW) Semiotic and Significs: The Correspondence between Charles S. Peirce and Victoria Lady Welby, ed. by Charles S. Hardwick, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1977.

Pelletier, Francis Jeffry (1990) Parmenides, Plato, and the Semantics of Not-Being, University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Peng, Yun, & James A. Reggia (1990) Abductive Inference Models for Diagnostic Problem Solving, Springer-Verlag, New York.

Penrose, Roger (1989) The Emperor's New Mind, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Perez, Sandra, & Anthony Sarris, eds. (1995) IRDS Conceptual Schema, Technical Report X3H4/92-003, American National Standards Institute, New York.

Perlis, Alan J. (1982) "Epigrams in Programming," SIGPLAN Notices, Sept. 1982, ACM. Available at

Perry, John (1970) "The same F," Philosophical Review 79, pp. 181-200. Reprinted in Kim & Sosa (1999) pp. 90-99.

Perry, John (1979) "The problem of the essential indexical," Nous, vol. 13, pp. 3-21.

Peter of Spain or Petrus Hispanus (circa 1239) Summulae Logicales, edited by I. M. Bocheński, Marietti, Turin, 1947. Selections translated in Kretzmann & Stump (1988).

Peterson, Brian J., William A. Andersen, & Joshua Engel (1998) "Knowledge bus: generating application-focused databases from large ontologies," Proc. 5th KRDB Workshop, Seattle, WA.

Petri, Carl Adam (1962) Kommunikation mit Automaten, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Bonn. English translation in technical report RADC-TR-65-377, Griffiss Air Force Base, 1966. Petrie, Charles J., Jr., ed. (1992) Enterprise Integration Modeling, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Petroski, Henry (1985) To Engineer is Human, St. Martin's Press, New York.

Pfeiffer, Heather D., & Timothy E. Nagle, eds. (1993) Conceptual Structures: Theory and Implementation, LNAI 754, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Pietarinen, Ahti-Veikko (2004) "Grice in the wake of Peirce," Pragmatics and Cognition 12:2, pp. 295-315.

Pike, Kenneth L. (1967) A Unified Theory of Human Behavior, 2nd edition, Mouton, The Hague.

Pinker, Steven (1994) The Language Instinct:  How the Mind Creates Language, William Morrow, New York.

Pinker, Steven, & Ray Jackendoff (2005) "The faculty of language: what's special about it?" Cognition 95:2, 201-236.

Plato, Theatetus, Sophist, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Poincaré, Henri (1908) Science et Méthod, translated by F. Maitland as Science and Method, Barnes and Noble Books, New York.

Poole, D. (1989) "Normality and faults in logic-based diagnosis," Proc. IJCAI-89, 1304-1310.

Pople, H. E., J. D. Myers, & R. A. Miller (1975) "DIALOG: a model of diagnostic logic for internal medicine," Proc. IJCAI-75, 848-855.

Pople, H. E. (1977) "The formation of composite hypotheses in diagnostic problem solving," Proc. IJCAI '77, 1030-1037.

Pople, H. (1982) "Heuristic methods for imposing structure on ill-structured problems," in P. Szolovits, ed., Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, Westview Press, Boulder, 119-190.

Porphyry, Isagoge et in Aristotelis Categorias Commentarium, in A. Busse (ed.), Commentaria in Aristotelem graeca 4(1), Berlin (1887).

Porphyry (circa 290) Isagôgê, translated as On Aristotle's Categories by S. K. Strange, Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY, 1992.

Post, Emil L. (1943) "Formal reductions of the general combinatorial decision problem," American J. of Mathematics 65, 197-268.

Potter, Vincent G. (1996) Peirce's Philosophical Perspectives, Fordham University Press, New York.

Potter, Vincent G. (1997) Charles S. Peirce on Norms and Ideals, Fordham University Press, New York.

Prior, Arthur N. (1968) Papers on Time and Tense, revised edition ed. by P. Hasle, P. Øhrstrøm, T. Braüner, & B. J. Copeland, Oxford University Press, 2003.

Przymusinski, Teodor (1991) "Three-valued nonmonotonic formalisms and semantics of logic programs," Artificial Intelligence 49:1-3, pp. 309-343.

Pustejovsky, James (1991) "The generative lexicon," Computational Linguistics 17:4, 409-441.

Pustejovsky, James, ed. (1993) Semantics and the Lexicon, Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Pustejovsky, James (1995) The generative lexicon, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Putnam, Hilary (1982) "Peirce the Logician" Historia Mathematica 9:290-301, reprinted in Putnam (1990) pp. 252-260.

Putnam, Hilary (1990) Realism with a Human Face, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.


Quillian, M. Ross (1966) Semantic Memory, Report AD-641671, Clearinghouse for Federal Scientific and Technical Information. Abridged version in Minsky (1968) pp. 227-270.

Quine, Willard Van Orman (1948) "On what there is," reprinted in Quine (1953) pp. 1-19.

Quine, Williard Van Orman (1951) Two dogmas of empiricism, reprinted in Quine (1953).

Quine, Williard Van Orman (1953) From a Logical Point of View, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, Second edition 1961.

Quine, Willard Van Orman (1960) Word and Object, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Quine, Willard Van Orman (1969) Ontological Relativity & Other Essays, Columbia University Press, New York.

Quine, Willard Van Orman (1972) "Responding to Saul Kripke," reprinted in Quine (1981) pp. 173-174.

Quine, Willard Van Orman (1981) Theories and Things, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Quine, Willard Van Orman (1995) "Peirce's logic," in Ketner (1995) pp. 23-31.


Rahmstorf, Gerhard (1983) Die semantischen Relationen in nominalen Ausdrücken des Deutschen, Inaugural Dissertation, Fachbereich Philologie, Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz.

Ralescu, Anca L., and Baldwin James F. (1989) Concept learning from examples and counter examples, International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, v. 30:3, 329-354.

Rassinoux, Anne-Marie (1994) Extraction et Représentation de la Connaissance tirée de Textes Médicaux, Éditions Systèmes et Information, Geneva.

Rassinoux, Anne-Marie, Robert H. Baud, Christian Lovis, Judith C. Wagner, Jean-Raoul Scherrer (1998) "Tuning up conceptual graph representation for multilingual natural language processing in medicine," in M-L Mugnier & M. Chein, eds. (1998) Conceptual Structures: Theory, Tools, and Applications, Lecture Notes in AI 1453, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 390-397

Rational Software (1997) UML Semantics,

Ravin, Yael, & Claudia Leacock, eds. (2000) Polysemy: Theoretical and Computational Approaches, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Reese, William (1952) "Philosophic Realism: A Study in the Modality of Being in Peirce and Whitehead," in Philip P. Wiener & Frederic H. Young, eds., Studies in the Philosophy of Charles Sanders Peirce, Harvard University Press, pp. 225-237.

Regier, Terry (1996) The Human Semantic Potential: Spatial Language and Constrained Connectionism, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Reiter, Raymond (1978) "On closed world data bases," in Gallaire & Minker (1978) 55-76.

Reiter, Raymond (2001) Knowledge in Action: Logical Foundations for Specifying and Implementing Dynamical Systems, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Reiter, R., & G. Criscuolo (1981) "On interacting defaults," Proc. IJCAI-81, 270-276.

Rescher, Nicholas (1962) "The revolt against process," Journal of Philosophy, vol. 59, pp. 410-417. Revised version reprinted in Rescher (1969) pp. 181-190. Excerpts reprinted in Rescher (2000) pp. 33-34.

Rescher, Nicholas (1969) Essays in Philosophical Analysis, University of Pittsburgh Press, Pittsburgh.

Rescher, Nicholas (2000) Process Philosophy: A Survey of Basic Issues, University of Pittsburgh Press.

Rescher, Nicholas (2001) Cognitive Pragmatism: The theory of Knowledge in Pragmatic Perspective, University of Pittsburgh Press.

Richardson, Stephen, William B. Dolan, & Lucy Vanderwende (1998) "MindNet: acquiring and structuring semantic information from text," Proc. COLING-ACL'98, Montreal, pp. 1098-1102.

Rieger, Chuck (1976) "An organization of knowledge for problem solving and language comprehension," Artificial Intelligence 7:2, 89-127.

Riesbeck, Christopher (1986) Review of Conceptual Structures by J. F. Sowa, ACM Computing Reviews 27:8, 392-393.

Riesbeck, Christopher K. & Roger C. Schank, (1989) Inside Case-Based Reasoning, Erlbaum, Hillsdale, NJ.

Roberts, Don D. (1973) The Existential Graphs of Charles S. Peirce, Mouton, The Hague.

Roberts, Lawrence D. (1993) How Reference Works, SUNY Press, Albany.

Robinson, Jane J. (1970) "Dependency structures and transformational rules," Language 46:2, 259-285.

Robinson, J. Alan (1965) "A machine oriented logic based on the resolution principle," Journal of the ACM, vol. 12, pp. 23-41.

Rorty, Richard (1961) "Pragmatism, categories, and language," Philosophical Review 70, 197-223.

Rosch, Eleanor (1975) "Cognitive representations of semantic categories," J. of Experimental Psychology, General 104, 192-253.

Rosch, Eleanor, & Barbara B. Lloyd, eds. (1978) Cognition and Categorization, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

Rosenblatt, Frank (1958) "The perceptron: a probabilistic model for information storage and organization in the brain," Psychological Review 65:6, 386-408.

Ruhl, Charles (1989) On Monosemy: A Study in Linguistic Semantics, State University of New York Press, Albany.

Russell, Bertrand (1905) "On denoting," Mind 14.

Russell, Bertrand (1918) "The Philosophy of Logical Atomism," The Monist, reprinted in Russell (LA) pp. 35-155.

Russell, Bertrand (1924) "Logical Atomism," in J. H. Muirhead, ed., Contemporary British Philosophy, London, reprinted in Russell (LA) pp. 157-181.

Russell, Bertrand (1969) "Mr. Strawson on referring," in My Philosophical Development, Unwin Hyman Limited, London, pp. 238-245.

Russell, Bertrand (LA) The Philosophy of Logical Atomism, Open Court, La Salle, IL, 1985.

Ryle, Gilbert (1949) The Concept of Mind, Barnes and Noble Books, New York.


Saint-Dizier, Patrick, & Evelyne Viegas, eds. (1995) Computational Lexical Semantics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Saint-Exupéry, Antoine de (1943) Le Petit Prince, translated by K. Woods as The Little Prince, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, New York.

Sandewall, Erik (1990) "Towards a logic of dynamic frames," Reprinted in Ford & Hayes (1991) pp. 201-217.

Sandewall, Erik (1994) Features and Fluents, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Sandewall, Erik, & Yoav Shoham (1995) "Nonmonotonic temporal reasoning," in Gabbay et al. (1995) pp. 439-498.

Sarraf, Qusai, & Gerard Ellis (2006) "Business Rules in Retail: The Story," Business Rules Journal 7:6.

Saussure, Ferdinand de (1916) Cours de Linguistique Générale, translated by W. Baskin as Course in General Linguistics, Philosophical Library, New York, 1959.

Scha, Remko (1981) "Distributive, collective, and cumulative quantification," reprinted in J.A.G. Groenendijk, T.M.V. Janssen, & M.B.J. Stockhof, eds., Truth, Interpretation, and Information, Foris, Dordrecht, 1984, pp. 131-158.

Schank, Roger C., ed. (1975) Conceptual Information Processing, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam.

Schank, R. C. (1982) Dynamic Memory, Cambridge University Press, New York.

Schank, Roger C., & Larry G. Tesler (1969) "A conceptual parser for natural language," Proc. IJCAI-69, 569-578.

Schank, Roger C., & Robert P. Abelson (1977) Scripts, Plans, Goals and Understanding, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

Schank, Roger C., Michael Lebowitz, & Lawrence Birnbaum (1980) "An integrated understander," American Journal of Computational Linguistics 6, 13-30.

Schank, Roger C., & Christopher K. Riesbeck, eds. (1981) Inside Computer Understanding, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

Schank, Roger C., Alex Kass, & Christopher K. Riesbeck (1994) Inside Case-Based Explanation, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Hillsdale, NJ.

Schlenoff, Craig, Michael Gruninger, Florence Tissot, John Valois, Josh Lubell, & Jintae Lee (1999) The Process Specification Language (PSL) Overview and Version 1.0 Specification, NIST Internal Report (NISTIR) 6459,

Schönfinkel, Moses (1924) "Über die Bausteine der mathematischen Logik," Mathematische Annalen 92, 305-316.

Schröder, Ernst (1890-1895) Vorlesungen über die Algebra der Logik, 3 vols., Teubner, Leipzig.

Schröder, Martin (1994) Erwartungsgestützte Analyse medizinischer Befundungstexte: Ein wissensbasiertes Modell zur Sprachverarbeitung, Infix Verlag, Sankt Augustin.

Schubert, Lenhart K. (2000) "The situations we talk about," in J. Minker, ed., Logic-Based Artificial Intelligence, Kluwer, Dordrecht, pp. 407-439.

Schwitter, Rolf (1998) Kontrolliertes Englisch für Anforderungsspezifikationen, Studentdruckerei, Zurich. Available from

Scott, Dana S. (1970) "Advice on modal logic," in K. Lambert, ed., Philosophical Problems in Logic, D. Reidel, Dordrecht, pp. 143-173.

Scott, Dana S. (1980) "Relating theories of the λ-calculus," in J. P. Seldin & J. R. Hindley, eds., To H. B. Curry: Essays on Combinatory Logic, Lambda Calculus and Formalism, Academic Press, New York, pp. 403-450.

Searle, John R. (1969), Speech Acts. An Essay in the Philosophy of Language, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Searle, John R. (1980) "Minds, brains, and programs," Behavioral and Brain Sciences 3, 417-424.

Searle, John R. (1983), Intentionality. An Essay in the Philosophy of Mind, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Searle, John R. (1995), The Construction of Social Reality, Free Press, New York.

Sebeok, Thomas A. (2001) Global Semiotics, University of Indiana Press, Bloomington.

Seligman, Jerry, & Lawrence S. Moss (1997) "Situation Theory," in van Bentham & ter Meulen (1997) pp. 239-309.

Selz, Otto (1913) Über die Gesetze des geordneten Denkverlaufs, Spemann, Stuttgart.

Selz, Otto (1922) Zur Psychologie des produktiven Denkens und des Irrtums, Friedrich Cohen, Bonn.

Selz, Otto (1991) Wahrnehmungsaufbau und Denkprozeß, selected writings edited by A. Métraux & T. Herrmann, Verlag Hans Huber, Bern.

Sextus Empiricus, Against the Logicians, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 1933.

Shafer, Glenn, & Judea Pearl, eds. (1990) Readings in Uncertain Reasoning, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA.

Shanahan, Murray (1997) Solving the Frame Problem, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Shannon, Claude E. (1948) "The mathematical theory of communication", Bell System Technical Journal. Reprinted in C. E. Shannon & W. Weaver, The Mathematical Theory of Information, University of Illinois Press, Urbana.

Shapiro, Stuart C. (1971) "A net structure for semantic information storage, deduction and retrieval," Proc. IJCAI-71, 512-523.

Shapiro, Stuart C. (1979) "The SNePS semantic network processing system," in Findler (1979) pp. 263-315.

Shapiro, Stuart C., & William J. Rapaport (1992) "The SNePS family," in Lehmann (1992) pp. 243-275.

Shastri, Lokendra (1992) "Structured connectionist models," in Lehmann (1992) 293-328.

Sheriff, John K. (1994) Charles Peirce's Guess at the Riddle: Grounds for Human Significance, Indiana University Press, Bloomington.

Shin, Sun-Joo (2002) The Iconic Logic of Peirce's Graphs, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Shortliffe, Edward H. (1976) Computer-Based Medical Consultations: MYCIN, American Elsevier, New York.

Simon, Herbert A. (1981) "Otto Selz and information-processing psychology," in Frijda & de Groot (1981).

Simon, Herbert A. (1989) "Human experts and knowledge-based systems," in M. Tokoro, Y. Anzai, & A. Yonezawa, eds., Concepts and Characteristics of Knowledge-Based Systems, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, pp. 1-21.

Simons, Peter (1987) Parts: A Study in Ontology, Clarendon Press, Oxford.

Simons, Peter (1992) Philosophy and Logic in Central Europe from Bolzano to Tarski, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Skinner, Burrhus Frederic (1945) "The operational analysis of psychological terms," Psychological Review 52, 270-77, 291-94.

Skuce, Doug, & Timothy Lethbridge (1995) "CODE4: A unified system for managing conceptual knowledge," International J. of Human-Computer Studies, 42 413-451.

Skuce, Doug (1998) "Intelligent knowledge management: integrating documents, knowledge bases, and linguistic knowledge," in Proceedings of KAW'98, Calgary.

Skuce, Doug (2000) "Integrating web-based documents, shared knowledge bases, and information retrieval for user help," Computational Intelligence 16:1.

Slagle, J. R., Gardiner, D. A. and Han, K. (1990) Knowledge specification of an expert system, IEEE Expert 5:4, 29-38.

Small, Steven I. (1980) Word Expert Parsing, PhD Thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Maryland.

Small, Steven I., Garrison W. Cottrell, & Michael K. Tannenhaus, eds. (1988) Lexical Ambiguity Resolution, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA.

Smith, Barry (1995) "Formal ontology, common sense, and cognitive science," International J. of Human-Computer Studies 43, 641-668.

Smith, Barry (1998) "Basic Concepts of Formal Ontology," in Guarino (1995) pp. 19-28.

Smith, Barry (1999)"Les objets sociaux," Philosophiques 26:2, 315-347. English version at

Smith, Barry, & David Woodruff Smith, eds. (1995) The Cambridge Companion to Husserl, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Smith, Barry, and Achille Varzi (2000) "Fiat and bona fide boundaries," Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 60:2, 401-420.

Smith, Barry, and John Searle (2001) "The construction of social reality: an exchange," American Journal of Economics and Sociology 60, available at

Smith, Brian Cantwell (1982) "Prolog to Reflections and Semantics in a Procedural Language," reprinted in Brachman & Levesque (1985) pp. 31-39.

Smith, Brian Cantwell (1996) On the Origin of Objects, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Smith, Carlotta S. (2003) Modes of Discourse: The Local Structure of Texts, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Somers, Harold L. (1987) Valency and Case in Computational Linguistics, Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.

Sorabji, Richard (1988) Matter, Space, and Motion: Theories in Antiquity and Their Sequel, Duckworth, London.

Sosa, Ernest, & Michael Tooley, eds. (1993) Causation, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Sowa, John F. (1976) "Conceptual graphs for a data base interface," IBM Journal of Research and Development 20:4, 336-357.

Sowa, John F. (1979a) "Definitional mechanisms for conceptual graphs," Graph Grammars and their Application to Computer Science and Biology, ed. by V. Claus, H. Ehrig, & G. Rozenberg, Springer Verlag, Berlin, pp. 426-439.

Sowa, John F. (1979b) "Semantics of conceptual graphs," Proc. of the 17th Annual Meeting of the Association for Computational Linguistics, pp. 39-44, 1979.

Sowa, John F. (1981) "A conceptual schema for knowledge based systems," Proceedings of the Workshop on Data Abstraction, Databases, and Conceptual Modeling, SIGMOD Record, ACM, 11:2, 193-195, 1981.

Sowa, John F. (1983) "Generating language from conceptual graphs," Computers and Mathematics with Applications

Sowa, John F. (1984) Conceptual Structures: Information Processing in Mind and Machine, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Sowa, John F. (1984b) "Interactive Language Implementation System (ILIS)," IBM Journal of Research and Development 28:1, 28-39.

Sowa, John F. (1985) "Una metodología para la tecnología de la informatión," Programación Informática: Sistemas Expertos, Instituto de Ciencias del Hombre, Madrid, pp. 23-38, 1985. (Spanish translation of an invited talk presented in November, 1984.)

Sowa, John F. (1987) "Semantic networks," Encyclopedia of Artificial Intelligence, edited by S. C. Shapiro, Wiley, New York, 1987; revised and extended for the second edition, 1992.

Sowa, John F. (1988a) "Using a lexicon of canonical graphs in a semantic interpreter," in M. Evens, ed., Relational Models of the Lexicon, Cambridge University Press, pp. 73-97.

Sowa, John F. (1988b) Knowledge Representation, Lecture notes for the AAAI-88 tutorial, co-authored with D. Skuce, AAAI, Menlo Park, CA, 1988.

Sowa, John F. (1988c) "Conceptual graph notation," in J. W. Esch, ed., Proceedings of the Third Annual Workshop on Conceptual Graphs, AAAI, Menlo Park, CA, 1988, pp. 2-1 to 2-22.

Sowa, John F. (1989a) "Knowledge acquisition by teachable systems," in J.P. Martins and E.M. Morgado, eds., EPIA 89, LNAI 390, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1989, pp. 381-396.

Sowa, John F. (1989b) "Review of Logical Foundations of Artificial Intelligence by Michael R. Genesereth & Nils J. Nilsson," Artificial Intelligence 38:1, 1989, 125-131.

Sowa, John F. (1989c) Knowledge Representation, Lecture notes for the IJCAI-89 tutorial, co-authored with N. Y. Foo, AAAI, Menlo Park, CA, 1989.

Sowa, John F. (1990a) "Knowledge representation in databases, expert systems, and natural language," in R.A. Meersman, Zh. Shi, & C-H. Kung, Artificial Intelligence in Databases and Information Systems, North-Holland Publishing Co., New York, 1990, pp. 17-50.

Sowa, John F. (1990b) "Definitional mechanisms for restructuring knowledge bases," in Z. W. Ras, M. Zemankova, & M. L. Emrich, eds., Methodologies for Intelligent Systems, 5, North-Holland Publishing Co., New York, 1990, pp. 194-211.

Sowa, John F. (1990c) "Crystallizing theories out of knowledge soup," in Z. W. Ras & M. Zemankova, eds., Intelligent Systems: State of the Art and Future Directions, Ellis Horwood Ltd., London, 1990, pp. 456-487.

Sowa, John F. (1990d) "Finding structure in knowledge soup," Proc. Info Japan '90, Information Processing Society of Japan, Tokyo, vol. 2, pp. 245-252, 1990.

Sowa, John F. (1990e) "A prolog to Prolog," in Knowledge Systems and Prolog, by A. Walker (ed), M. McCord, J. Sowa, & W. Wilson, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1987; revised and extended for the second edition, 1990.

Sowa, John F. (1991a) "Towards a reintegration of AI research," in Future Directions in AI, ed. by P. A. Flach & R. A. Meersman, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1991, pp. 25-33.

Sowa, John F., ed. (1991b) Principles of Semantic Networks: Explorations in the Representation of Knowledge, Morgan Kaufmann Publishers, San Mateo, CA, 1991.

Sowa, John F. (1991c) "Towards the expressive power of natural languages," in J. F. Sowa (1991b) pp. 157-189.

Sowa, John F. (1992a) "Logical structures in the lexicon," in Lexical Semantics and Commonsense Reasoning, edited by James Pustejovsky and Sabine Bergler, LNAI 627, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1992, pp. 39-60.

Sowa, John F. (1992b) "Conceptual analysis as a basis for knowledge acquisition," in R. R. Hoffman, ed., The Cognition of Experts: Psychological Research and Empirical AI, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Sowa, John F. (1992c) "Conceptual graphs summary," in Nagle et al. (1992) pp. 3-51.

Sowa, John F. (1992d) "Conceptual graphs as a universal knowledge representation," Computers and Mathematics with Applications, vol. 23, no 2-5, 1992. Reprinted in Lehmann (1992) pp. 75-93.

Sowa, John F. (1993a) "Lexical structures and conceptual structures," in Pustejovsky (1993) pp. 223-262.

Sowa, John F. (1993b) "Logical foundations for representing object-oriented systems," Journal of Experimental & Theoretical AI, vol. 5, nos. 2&3, 1993, pp. 237-261.

Sowa, John F. (1993c) "Relating diagrams to logic," in G. Mineau, B. Moulin, & J. F. Sowa eds., Conceptual Graphs for Knowledge Representation, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1993.

Sowa, John F. (1993d) "Logic-based standards for the conceptual schema," in J. Cuena, ed., Knowledge Oriented Software Design, North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam, 1993, pp. 251-280.

Sowa, John F. (1993e) "Review of Building Large Knowledge-Based Systems: Representation and Inference in the Cyc Project by D. B. Lenat & R. V. Guha," Artificial Intelligence 61:1, 1993, 95-104.

Sowa, John F. (1995) "Syntax, semantics, and pragmatics of contexts," in Ellis et al. (1995) Conceptual Structures: Applications, Implementation, and Theory, LNAI 954, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 1-15.

Sowa, John F. (1996a) "Top-level ontological categories," International J. of Human-Computer Studies, 43:5/6, 1996, 669-686.

Sowa, John F. (1996b) "Processes and participants," in Eklund et al. (1996) pp. 1-22.

Sowa, John F. (1997a) "Matching logical structure to linguistic structure," in Houser, Roberts, & Van Evra (1997).

Sowa, John F. (1997b) "Peircean foundations for a theory of context," in D. Lukose et al., eds., Conceptual Structures: Fulfilling Peirce's Dream, LNAI 1257, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997, pp. 41-64.

Sowa, John F. (1998a) "Conceptual graph standard and extensions," in M-L Mugnier, & M. Chein, eds., Conceptual Structures: Theory, Tools, and Applications, LNAI 1453, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998, pp. 3-14.

Sowa, John F. (1998b) "Conceptual Graphs," in P. Bernus, K. Mertins, & G. Schmidt, eds., Handbook on Architectures of Information Systems, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1998, pp. 287-311.

Sowa, John F. (1998c) "The infinite variety of logics," in O. Herzog & A. Günter, eds., KI-98: Advances in Artificial Intelligence, LNAI 1504, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, pp. 31-53.

Sowa, John F. (1999a) "Relating templates to logic and language," in Information Extraction: Towards Scalable, Adaptable Systems, ed. by M. T. Pazienza, LNAI 1714, Springer-Verlag, pp. 76-94.

Sowa, John F. (1999b) "Review of Philosophy in the Flesh: The Embodied Mind and its Challenge to Western Thought by George Lakoff and Mark Johnson," in Computational Linguistics, 25:4, December 1999.

Sowa, John F. (1999c) "Ontological categories," in L. Albertazzi, ed., Shapes of Forms: From Gestalt Psychology and Phenomenology to Ontology and Mathematics, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1999, pp. 307-340.

Sowa, John F. (2000) Knowledge Representation: Logical, Philosophical, and Computational Foundations, Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Pacific Grove, CA.

Sowa, John F. (2000b) "Ontology, metadata, and semiotics," in B. Ganter & G. W. Mineau, eds., Conceptual Structures: Logical, Linguistic, and Computational Issues, LNAI 1867, Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000, pp. 55-81.

Sowa, John F. (2002) "Architectures for intelligent systems," IBM Systems Journal 41:3, 331-349.

Sowa, John F. (2003) "Laws, facts, and contexts: Foundations for multimodal reasoning," in Knowledge Contributors, edited by V. F. Hendricks, K. F. Jørgensen, and S. A. Pedersen, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, pp. 145-184.

Sowa, John F. (2004) "Graphics and languages for the Flexible Modular Framework," in Wolff et al. (2004) pp. 31-51.

"Review of Ontological Semantics by Nirenburg and Raskin," Computational Linguistics 31:1, pp. 147-152.

Sowa, John F. (2006) "The Challenge of Knowledge Soup," in J. Ramadas & S. Chunawala, Research Trends in Science, Technology, and Mathematics Education, Homi Bhabha Centre, Mumbai, pp. 55-90.

Sowa, John F. (2006) "Categorization in Cognitive Computer Science," in H. Cohen & C. Lefebvre, eds., Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science, Elsevier, pp. 141-163.

Sowa, John F. (2006) "Peirce's contributions to the 21st Century," Published in H. Schärfe, P. Hitzler, & P. Øhrstrøm, eds., Conceptual Structures: Inspiration and Application, LNAI 4068, Springer, Berlin, pp. 54-69.

Sowa, John F. (2006) "Worlds, Models, and Descriptions," Studia Logica, Special Issue Ways of Worlds II, to appear in November, 2006.

Sowa, John F., & Eileen C. Way (1986) "Implementing a semantic interpreter using conceptual graphs," IBM Journal of Research and Development 30:1, 57-69.

Sowa, John F., & John A. Zachman (1992a) "Extending and formalizing the Framework for Information Systems Architecture," IBM Systems Journal 31:3, pp. 590-616.

Sowa, John F., & John A. Zachman (1992b) "A logic-based approach to enterprise integration," in C. J. Petrie, ed., Enterprise Integration Modeling, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA, pp. 152-163.

Sowa, John F., & Arun K. Majumdar (2003) "Analogical reasoning," in de Moor et al. (2003) pp. 16-36.

Spaanenburg, L., Alberts, R., Slump, C.H. and vanderZwaag, B.J. (2003) "Natural learning of neural networks by reconfiguration," in Rodriguez-Vazquez, A., Abbott, D. and Carmona, R. (eds.), SPIE Int. Symp. On Microtechnologies for the new Millennium, Vol. 5119, pp. 273-284.

Spade, Paul Vincent, ed. (1999) The Cambridge Companion to Ockham, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Spivey, J. Michael (1992) The Z Notation:  A Reference Manual, 2nd edition, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.

Stalnaker, Robert (1976) "Propositions," in A. MacKay & D. Merrill, eds., Issues in the Philosophy of Language, Yale University Press, New Haven, CT, pp. 79-91.

Steele, James, ed. (1990) Meaning-Text Theory, University of Ottawa Press, Ottawa.

Steiner, George (1975) After Babel:  Aspects of Language and Translation, Oxford University Press, Oxford, third edition 1998.

Sterrett, Susan G. (2006) Wittgenstein Flies a Kite, Pi Press, New York.

Stewart, John (1996) Theorem Proving Using Existential Graphs, MS Thesis, Computer and Information Science, University of California at Santa Cruz.

Strawson, Peter F. (1950) "On referring," Mind 59, 320-344.

Strawson, Peter F. (1959) Individuals: An Essay in Descriptive Metaphysics, Methuen and Co., London.

Strawson, Peter F. (1992) Analysis and Metaphysics: An Introduction to Philosophy, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Swartz, Norman (1997) Definitions, Dictionaries, and Meanings, Simon Fraser University.

Sweet, Albert M. (1988) The Pragmatics and Semiotics of Standard Languages, Pennsylvania State University Press, University Park.


Talmy, Leonard (1983) "How languages structure space," in H. L. Pick & L. P. Acredolo, eds, Spatial Orientation: Theory, Research, and Application, New York, Plenum Press, pp. 225-282.

Talmy, Leonard (2000) Toward a Cognitive Semantics, Volume I:  Concept Structuring Systems, Volume II:  Typology and Process in Concept Structure, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Tarski, Alfred (1929) "Foundations of the geometry of solids," in Tarski (1982) pp. 24-29.

Tarski, Alfred (1933) "Pojecie prawdy w jezykach nauk dedukcynych," German trans. as "Der Wahrheitsbegriff in den formalisierten Sprachen," English trans. as "The concept of truth in formalized languages," in Tarski (1982) pp. 152-278.

Tarski, Alfred (1936) "Über den Begriff der logischen Folgerung," translated as "On the concept of logical consequence" in Tarski (1982) pp. 409-420.

Tarski, Alfred (1944) "The semantic conception of truth and the foundations of semantics" Philosophy and Phenomenological Research 4.

Tarski, Alfred (1982) Logic, Semantics, Metamathematics, Second edition, Hackett Publishing Co., Indianapolis.

Tenny, Carol L., & James Pustejovsky, eds. (2000) Events as Grammatical Objects: The Converging Perspectives of Lexical Semantics and Syntax, CSLI Publications, Stanford, CA.

Tesnière, Lucien (1959) Éléments de Syntaxe structurale, 2nd edition, Librairie C. Klincksieck, Paris, 1965.

Thom, René (1972) Stabilité structurelle et Morphogénèse, translated by D. H. Fowler as Structural Stability and Morphogenesis, Westview Press.

Thom, René (1974) Modèles mathématiques de la Morphogénèse. Recueil de textes sur la théorie des catastrophes et ses applications, Union Générale d'Éditions, Paris.

Thomason, Richmond H. (2001) "Review of Formal Aspects of Context edited by Bonzon et al.," Computational Linguistics 27:4, 598-600.

Thorndike, Edward Lee (1932) The Fundamentals of Learning, Teachers College Press, New York.

Thue, Axel (1914) "Probleme über Veränderungen von Zeichenreihen nach gegebenen Regeln," Skrifter utgit av Videnskapsselskapet i Kristiania 1:10.

Tolman, Edward C. (1948) "Cognitive maps in rats and men," Psychological Review 55:4, 189-208.

Troelstra, Anne Sjerp (1992) Lectures on Linear Logic, CSLI, Stanford, CA.

Tsichritzis, Dionysios C., & Anthony Klug, eds. (1978) "The ANSI/X3/SPARC DBMS framework," Information Systems 3, 173-191.

Tufte, Edward R. (1997) Visual Explanations: Images and Quantities, Evidence and Narrative, Graphics Press.

Tulving, Endel (1972) "Episodic and semantic memory," in E. Tulving & W. Donaldson, eds., Organization of Memory, Academic Press, New York.

Turner, Raymond (1990) Truth and Modality for Knowledge Representation, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.


Ungar, A. M. (1992) Normalization, Cut-Elimination, and the Theory of Proofs, CSLI, Stanford, CA.


Vaihinger, Hans (1924) Die Philosophie des Als Ob, Felix Meinder Verlag, Leipzig. Translated by C. K. Ogden as The Philosophy of "As If," second edition, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, 1935.

van Bentham, Johan (1983) The Logic of Time, Reidel, Dordrecht, second edition 1991.

van Bentham, Johan (1995) "Temporal logic," in Gabbay et al. (1995) pp. 241-350.

van Deemter, Kees, & Stanley Peters (1996) Semantic Ambiguity and Underspecification, CSLI, Stanford, CA.

van den Berg, Martin H. (1996) Some Aspects of The Internal Structure of Discourse. The Dynamics of Nominal Anaphora, Ph.D. thesis, ILLC/Department of Computational Linguistics, Amsterdam.

van Heijenoort, Jean (1967) From Frege to Gödel, Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

van Inwagen, Peter (2001) Ontology, Identity, and Modality: Essays in Metaphysics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Varela, Francisco J., Evan Thompson, & Eleanor Rosch (1991) The Embodied Mind: Cognitive Science and Human Experience, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Velardi, Paola, Maria Teresa Pazienza, & Mario De' Giovanetti (1988) "Conceptual graphs for the analysis and generation of sentences," IBM J. of Research & Development 32:2, 251-267.

Velardi, Paola, Maria Teresa Pazienza, & M. Fasolo (1991) "How to encode semantic knowledge: a method for learning representation," Computational Linguistics 17:2, 153-170.

Veltman, Frank C. (1996), "Defaults in Update Semantics," Journal of Philosophical Logic 25, 221-261.

Vogt, Paul (2002) "The physical symbol grounding problem," Cognitive Systems Research 3:3, 429-457.


Wagner, Gerd (1994) Vivid Logic, LNAI 764, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Wahlster, Wolfgang, Elisabeth André, Wolfgang Finkler, Hans-Jürgen Profitlich, & Thomas Rist (1993) Artificial Intelligence, vol. 63, pp. 387-427.

Waismann, F. (1952) "Verifiability," in A. Flew, ed., Logic and Language, first series, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Walker, Adrian (ed), Michael McCord, John F. Sowa, & Walter Wilson (1990) Knowledge Systems and Prolog, second edition, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Waltz, David L., & Jordan B. Pollack (1985) "Massively parallel parsing," Cognitive Science 9:1, 51-74.

Wang, Hao (1960) "Toward mechanical mathematics," IBM Journal of Research and Development 4, pp. 2-22.

Wang, Hao (1986) Beyond Analytic Philosophy: Doing Justice to What We Know, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Wang, Hao (1987) Reflections on Kurt Gö/del, MIT Press, Cambridge, MA.

Warmer, Jos, & Anneke Kleppe (1999) The Object Constraint Language: Precise Modeling with UML, Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.

Warren, David H.D., & Fernando C.N. Pereira (1982) "An efficient easily adaptable system for interpreting natural language queries," Computational Linguistics, 8:3-4, 110-122.

Watson, John B. (1913) "Psychology as the behaviorist views it," Psychological Review 20, pp. 158-177.

Watson, John B. (1913) "Is thinking merely the action of language mechanisms?" British Journal of Psychology 11, 87-104.

Way, Eileen C. (1991) Knowledge Representation and Metaphor, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Way, Eileen C., ed. (1992) Journal of Experimental and Theoretical Artificial Intelligence (JETAI), Special Issue on Conceptual Graphs, vol. 4, no. 2.

Webelhuth, Gert, ed. (1995) Government and Binding Theory and the Minimalist Program, Blackwell, Oxford.

Weinreich, Uriel (1963) "Soviet Lexicology," in Weinreich (1980) pp. 315-358.

Weinreich, Uriel (1980) On Semantics, ed. by W. Labov & B. S. Weinreich, University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.

Wertheimer, Max (1925) Über Gestalttheorie translated as "Gestalt Theory," by W. D. Ellis, Source Book of Gestalt Psychology, Harcourt, Brace and Co, New York 1938.

Wheeler, Samuel C., III (2000) Deconstruction as Analytic Philosophy, Stanford University Press, Stanford, CA.

Whewell, William (1858) History of Scientific Ideas, J. W. Parker & Son, London.

White, A. R. (1975) "Conceptual analysis," in C. J. Bontempo & S. J. Odell, eds., The Owl of Minerva, McGraw-Hill, New York, pp. 103-117.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1911) An Introduction to Mathematics, H. Holt & Co., New York.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1919) An Enquiry Concerning the Principles of Natural Knowledge, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1920) The Concept of Nature, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1925) Science and the Modern World, Mentor, New York.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1926) Religion in the Making, Fordham University Press, Bronx, NY, 1996.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1929) Process and Reality: An Essay in Cosmology, corrected edition edited by D. R. Griffin & D. W. Sherburne, Free Press, New York, 1978.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1933) Adventures of Ideas, Macmillan, New York.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1937) "Analysis of Meaning," Philosophical Review, reprinted in A. N. Whitehead, Essays in Science and Philosophy, Philosophical Library, New York, pp. 122-131.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1938) Modes of Thought, Macmillan Co., New York.

Whitehead, Alfred North (1941) "Immortality," in The Philosophy of Alfred North Whitehead, ed. by P. A. Schilpp, Open Court, La Salle, IL.

Whitehead, Alfred North, & Bertrand Russell (1910) Principia Mathematica, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1925.

Wielinga, Bob, Guus Schreiber, Wouter Jansweijer, Anjo Anewierden, & Frank van Harmelen (1994) "Framework and formalism for representing ontologies," Report DO1b.1-Framework-1.1-UvA-BW+GS+WJ+AA, University of Amsterdam.

Wierzbicka, Anna (1980) Lingua Mentalis: the Semantics of Natural Language, Academic Press, New York.

Wierzbicka, Anna (1987) English Speech Act Verbs, Academic Press, New York.

Wierzbicka, Anna (1988) The Semantics of Grammar, John Benjamins Publishing Co., Philadelphia.

Wierzbicka, Anna (1992) Semantics, Culture, and Cognition, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wierzbicka, Anna (1996) Semantics: Primes and Universals, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Wigner, Eugene (1960) "The unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics in the natural sciences", Communications in Pure and Applied Mathematics 13:1.

Wildgen, Wolfgang (1982) Catastrophe Theoretic Semantics:  An Elaboration and Application of René Thom's Theory, John Benjamins Publishing Co., Amsterdam.

Wilkins, John (1668) An Essay Towards a Real Character and a Philosophical Language. Reprinted by Scolar Press, Menston, England, 1968.

Wilkins, Wendy, ed. (1988) Syntax and Semantics: Thematic Relations, Academic Press, New York.

Wilks, Yorick A. (1972) Grammar, Meaning, and the Machine Analysis of Language, Routledge and Kegan Paul, London.

Wilks, Yorick A. (1975) "A preferential pattern-seeking semantics for natural language inference," Artificial Intelligence, vol. 10, pp. 75-97.

Wilks, Yorick (1975) "An intelligent analyzer and understander of English," Comm. ACM 18:5, 264-274.

Wilks, Yorick (1983) "Deep and superficial parsing," in King (1983) 219-246.

Wilks, Yorick, & Dan Fass (1992) "The preference semantics family," in Lehmann (1992) pp. 205-222.

Wille, Rudolf (1992) "Concept lattices and conceptual knowledge systems," Computers and Mathematics with Applications, vol. 23, pp. 493-515.

Williamson, Timothy (1994) Vagueness, Routledge, London.

Wilson, Walter (1990) "Programming techniques in Prolog," in Walker et al. (1990).

Winograd, Terry (1972) Understanding Natural Language, Academic Press, New York.

Winograd, Terry, & Fernando Flores (1986) Understanding Computers and Cognition, Ablex, Norwood, NJ.

Winston, Patrick Henry, (1975a) "Learning structural descriptions from examples," in Winston (1975b) 157-209.

Winston, Patrick Henry, ed. (1975b) The Psychology of Computer Vision, McGraw-Hill, New York.

Wintraecken, J. J. (1990) The NIAM Information Analysis Method: Theory & Practice, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht.

Witten, Ian H., Alistair Moffat, & Timothy C. Bell (1994) Managing Gigabytes: Compressing and Indexing Documents and Images, Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1921) Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1953) Philosophical Investigations, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig (1958) The Blue and Brown Books, Basil Blackwell, Oxford.

Woods, William A. (1968) "Procedural semantics for a question-answering machine," AFIPS Conference Proc., 1968 FJCC, 457-471.

Woods, William A., R. M. Kaplan, & B. L. Nash-Webber (1972) The LUNAR Sciences Natural Language System, Final Report, NTIS N72-28984.

Woods, William A. (1975) "What's in a link: foundations for semantic networks," in D. G. Bobrow & A. Collins, eds. (1975) Representation and Understanding, Academic Press, New York, pp. 35-82.

Woods, William A., & James G. Schmolze (1992) "The KL-ONE Family," in Lehmann (1992) pp. 133-177.

Wooldridge, Michael J., & Nicholas R. Jennings (1995a) "Agent theories, architectures, and languages: A survey," in Wooldridge & Jennings (1995b), pp. 1 ff.

Wooldridge, Michael J., & Nicholas R. Jennings, eds. (1995b) Intelligent Agents, LNAI 890, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Wolff, Karl Erich, Heather D. Pfeiffer, & Harry S. Delugach (2004) Conceptual Structures at Work, Proceedings of ICCS 2004, LNAI 3127, Springer-Verlag, Berlin.

Wright, J. R., E. S. Wexelbaum, G. T. Vesonder, K. E. Brown, S. R. Palmer, J. I. Berman, & H. H. Moore (1993) "A knowledge-based configurator that supports sales, engineering, and manufacturing at AT&.T Network Systems," AI Magazine 14:3, 69-80.



Yager, Ronald R., Janusz Kacprzyk, & Mario Fedrizzi, eds. (1994) Advances in the Dempster-Shafer Theory of Evidence, Wiley & Sons, New York.

Yates, Frances A. (1982) Lull and Bruno, Routledge & Kegan Paul, London.

Yokoi, Toshio (1995) "The EDR electronic dictionary," Communications of the ACM 38:11, 42-44.

Yourgrau, Palle (1999) Gödel Meets Einstein: Time Travel in the Gödel Universe, Open Court, Chicago.


Zachman, John A. (1987) "A framework for information systems architecture," IBM Systems Journal 26:3, pp. 276-292.

Zadeh, Lotfi A. (1965) "Fuzzy sets," Information and Control, vol. 8, pp. 338-353.

Zadeh, Lotfi A. (1975) "Fuzzy logic and approximate reasoning," Synthése 30, 407-428.

Zadeh, Lotfi A. (1986) "A simple view of the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence and its implication for the rule of combination," AI Magazine 7:2, Summer 1986, pp. 85-90.

Zadrozny, W., & M. M. Kokar (1990) "A logical model of machine learning: A study of vague predicates," in P. Benjamin, ed., Change of Representation and Inductive Bias, Kluwer, Dordrecht.

Zadrozny, Wlodek (1994) "Reasoning with background knowledge — a three-level theory," Computational Intelligence, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 150-184.

Zahar, Elie (2001) Poincaré's Philosophy: From Conventionalism to Phenomenology, Open Court, Chicago.

Zeman, Jay (1997) "The tinctures and implicit quantification over worlds," in Brunning & Forster (1997) pp. 96-119.

Zimbel, Roland (1991) Graphische Spezifikationen: Ein graphik-adäquater, objektzentrierter Kalkül zur Entwicklung korrekter Programme, PhD Dissertation, University of Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum Informatik.

Copyright ©2002, 2006 by John F. Sowa. Permission is hereby granted for anyone to make verbatim copies of this document for teaching, self-study, or other noncommercial purposes provided that the copies cite the author, the URL of this document, and this permission statement. Please send comments and corrections to John Sowa.

  Last Modified: