Part One - Kombucha FAQ
Frequently Asked Questions
Miscellaneous (part 1 of 2 - 6.1 - 6.50 )
Miscellaneous (part 2 of 2 - 6.51 - 6.96)
Kombucha FAQ Home Page
relation to, or producing vinegar, (acetic acid).
- Acetic acid The acid most commonly associated with vinegar C2H4O2 is the most commercially
important organic acid and is used to manufacture a wide range of chemical products, such as plastics and insecticides.
It is produced naturally by Acetobacter, but except for making vinegar, is usually made through synthetic processes.
Acetobacter is a genus of rod-shaped, flagellated or non-motile Gram-negative bacteria that oxidize ethanol to
acetic acid. These bacteria are commonly found on fruits and vegetables, and although they are used commercially
to produce vinegar (especially Acetobacter aceti), they're considered pests by brewers and vintners.
Sour; having a pH of less than 7.
A pathologic condition resulting from accumulation of acid or loss of base in the body, and characterized by increase
in hydrogen ion concentration (decrease in pH.)
A process requiring oxygen or free air; conditions in which oxygen is present.
A fungal toxin which is a powerful liver carcinogen. It is produced by Aspergillus flavus and A. parasiticus, which
grow easily on beans, grain, and peanuts which are inappropriately stored in warm, humid conditions. The presence
of aflatoxins in contaminated food supplies is thought to contribute to the high levels of liver cancer in undeveloped
and developing countries.
Basic; having a pH of greater than 7.
- Alkaline earths
Certain substances, as lime, baryta, strontia, and magnesia, possessing some of the qualities of alkalies.
- Alkaline metals
potassium, sodium, c[ae]sium, lithium, rubidium.
- Alkaline reaction a reaction indicating alkalinity, as by the action on limits, turmeric, etc.
- Alkaloid An organic base, especially one of a class of substances occurring ready
formed in the tissues of plants and the bodies of animals. Alkaloids all contain nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen
and many of them also contain oxygen. They include many of the active principles in plants; hence, morphine and
narcontine are alkaloids found in opium.
The metallic base of alumina. This metal is white but with a bluish tinge, and is remarkable for its resistance
to oxidation and for its lightness, pertaining a specific gravity of about 2.6. Atomic weight 27.08. Symbol AL
Growing only in the absence of molecular oxygen. Not requiring air or oxygen for life--applied especially to those
microbes to which free oxygen is unnecessary.
- Anaerobic respiration A form of respiration in which energy is released from chemical reactions in which free oxygen
takes no part.
A substance that reduces the sensation of pain.
Of or pertaining to bacteria.
A substance produced by a microörganism (as a fungus or bacterium) that in dilute solution inhibits or kills
Preventing or stopping the growth of germs that cause disease or decay.
A solid poisonous chemical element commonly metallic steel-gray, crystalline, and brittle--a white poisonous trioxide
of arsenic used especially as an insecticide or weed killer--also called arsenic trioxide
A mineral that readily separates into long flexible fibers suitable for use as a fireproof, nonconducting, and
chemically resistant material.
Aspergillus fungi belonging to Deuteromycetes. Fungi in this genus are easy to grow; some produce a wide range
of useful enzymes, but others are dangerous pests and pathogens. For instance, A. niger is used to produce citric
acid, gluconic acid, amylase, proteases, and peptic enzymes, but A. parasiticus grows on grains and produces aflatoxin,
a powerful liver carcinogen.
(sing. bacterium) Tiny, unicellular, prokaryotic organisms that reproduce by cell division and usually have cell
walls; can be shaped like spheres, rods or spirals and can be found in virtually any environment. Bacteria are
destitute of chlorophyll and are the smallest of microscopic organisms. They are widely diffused in nature and
multiply with marvelous rapidity both by fission and by spores. Certain species are active agents in fermentation,
while others appear to be the cause of certain infectious diseases.
A colorless volatile flammable toxic liquid hydrocarbon C6H6 used as a solvent and in making other chemicals (as
dyes and drugs)--called benzol(alteration of benzene)
- Blood Pressure The force exerted blood as it presses against and attempts to stretch blood
- Botulism (botulinus
toxin) A very strong poison which affects the nervous system, made by the bacteria Clostridium botulinum. The poison
causes the food poisoning known as botulism.
- Caffeic acid
A crystalline solid, dihydroxy cinnamic acid, (OH)2C6H3CH:CH.COOH.
Contains caffeine. such as tea, coffee, chocolate and cola.
- Candida albicansC. albicans is a species of yeast which is commonly found in the mouth,
intestines and vagina as a part of the human body's normal flora and which normally does not cause problems. However,
it can cause candidiasis of the mucous membranes in the mouth (also called thrush) and of the vagina (called vaginitis
or simply a yeast infection). It can also cause more serious diseases in people with AIDS and in chemotherapy patients.
- Carbohydrate A
compound or molecule that is composed of carbon, oxygen and hydrogen in the ratio of 2H1C1O. Carbohydrates can
be simple sugars such as sucrose and fructose or complex polysaccharide polymers such as chitin.
- Carbon dioxide
carbon dioxide cycle. First, an organism which can photosynthesize (such as a plant or some bacteria) will absorb
carbon dioxide (CO2) from the air and incorporate it into its body or turn it into organic matter. Then, other
organisms which cannot photosynthesize will eat the organic matter, or the photosynthesizing organism, and release
CO2 gas as a waste product back into the air.
Relating to the heart and blood vessels (arteries, veins, and capillaries); the circulatory system.
- Catalyst A substance that changes the rate of a chemical reaction but is itself unchanged
at the end of the process; esp.: such a substance that speeds up a reaction or enables it to proceed under milder
conditions than otherwise possible.
Inflammation of a mucous membrane with a free discharge (Hippocrates); especially such inflammation of the air-passages
of the head and throat. This word has been practically eliminated from the scientific vocabulary.
1.) A crystalline principle, C19H18O8 + 5H2O, from catechu. 2.) a substance in the blood which has a restraining
effect on the action of a hormone.
- Cellulose a complex carbohydrate (homopolysaccharide), sugar component: glucose; functions:
structural molecule in plants; sources: throughout plant kingdom. Only certain types of microbes can break down
cellulose, and thus herbivores frequently harbor cellulose-digesting bacteria in their digestive systems. Cellulose
is the main component of paper and can be used to synthesize alcohol.
- Cellulose synthase
An enzyme which assembles sugar molecules into cellulose (a major component of the cell walls of plant cells).
A large polysaccharide which helps give structure to plant cells. Along with pectin, it forms an amorphous matrix
in which cellulose fibrils from the plant cell walls are embedded. It has the chemical formula of C6H10O5 and consists
of a chain of D-oxylose sugar units which has side chains of units of other sugars branching off it.
- NitrocelluloseA nitrogen-polysaccharide complex used to make membranes used to immobilize
DNA, RNA, or protein, which can then be probed with a labeled sequence or antibody.
- Central Nervous System (CNS). Portion of the nervous system which consists of the brain and spinal cord.
compound containing chlorine.
A viscous volatile liquid insecticide C10H6CI8.
A chemical element that is a heavy greenish-yellow irritating gas of pungent odor used especially as a bleach,
oxidizing agent, and disinfectant in water purification.
Green; a green granular matter formed in the cells of the leaves (and other parts exposed to light) of plants,
to which they owe their green color, and through which all ordinary assimilation of plant food takes place. Similar
chlorophyll granules have been found in the tissues of the lower animals.
A lipid which higher organisms use in the construction of cell membranes and as a precursor molecule in steroid
synthesis. If a person produces too much cholesterol, the excess often gets laid down on the interior of blood
vessels, causing heart disease, hardening of the arteries, and often heart attacks or strokes.
Occurring over a long period of time, either continuously or intermittently, used to describe ongoing exposures
and effects that develop only after a long exposure.
- Colony A collection or group of bacteria in a culture derived from the increase
of an isolated single organism or group of organisms.
A cell family or group of common origin, mostly of unicellular organisms, esp. among the lower alg[ae]. They may
adhere in chains or groups, or be held together by a gelatinous envelope.
A material made up of two or more elements.
a reddish chiefly univalent and bivalent metallic element that is ductile and malleable and one of the best conductors
of heat and electricity.
- Corrosion corrosion of tissue. This is the destruction of tissue by a substance (such
as a strong acid or base) on direct contact.
1.) The propagation of microörganisms or of living tissue cells in special media conductive to their growth.
2.) a growth of microörganisms or other living cells.
1.)The cultivation of bacteria or other organisms in artificial media or under artificial conditions. 2.) The
collection of organisms resulting from such a cultivation.
- Culture medium Any substance or media used for the cultivation of living cells.
Excessive loss of water from the body.
1.) To reduce the toxicity of a substance by either 1.making it less harmful or 2.) treating patients suffering from poisoning in such a way as to reduce the probability
and/or severity of harmful effects.
- DisaccharideA sugar such as sucrose, which is made up of two monosaccharides: one glucose
molecule and one fructose molecule.
disinfectant. A chemical which kills bacteria and viruses and other microörganisms on a non living surface.
A "complete disinfectant" will also kill spores of microörganisms; an "incomplete disinfectant"
1.) To break up and drive off. 2.) to cause to spread out to the point of vanishing. (dissolve)
Tending to increase the secretion and discharge of urine. - n. A medicine with diuretic properties.
effervescent 1.) To bubble,
hiss, and foam as gas escapes (ginger ale effervesces).
- Elixir(Alchemy) 1.) An imaginary liquor capable of transmuting metals into gold;
2.)also, a substance capable of producing life indefinitely; as, elixir vit[ae], or the elixir of life. 3. The
refined spirit; the quintessence. 4. Any cordial or substance which invigorates. The grand elixir, to support the
spirits of human nature. 5. cure-all.
1.) An organic catalyst that speeds chemical reactions. 2.) An unorganized or unformed ferment, in distinction
from an organized or living ferment; a soluble, or chemical, ferment. Ptyalin, pepsin, diastase, and rennet are
good examples of enzymes.
Proteins that act as catalysts, speeding the rate at which biochemical reactions proceed but not altering the direction
or nature of the reactions.
- Enzyme inhibitor
A molecule which represses or prevent another molecule from engaging in a reaction.
- Ferment That which causes fermentation, as yeast, barm, or fermenting beer. Note:
Ferments are of two kinds: (a) Formed or organized ferments. (b) Unorganized or structure less ferments. The latter
are also called soluble or chemical ferments, and enzymes. Ferments of the first class are as a rule simple microscopic
vegetable organisms, and the fermentations which they engender are due to their growth and development; as, the
acetic ferment, the butyric ferment, etc. See Fermentation. Ferments of the second class, on the other hand, are
chemical substances, as a rule soluble in glycerin and precipitated by alcohol. In action they are catalytic and,
mainly, hydrolytic. Good examples are pepsin of the gastric juice, ptyalin of the salvia, and disease of malt.
2. Ferment is also the term used for a fermented beverage such as Kombucha tea.
- Acetous, and or Acetic fermentation. a form of oxidation
in which alcohol is converted into vinegar, (acetic acid), by the agency of a specific fungus or ferment (mycoderma
aceti). The process involves two distinct reactions in which the oxygen of the air is essential. An intermediate
product, aldehyde, is formed in the first process. 1.) C2H6O + O = H2O + C2H4O Alcohol. Water. Aldehyde. 2.) C2H4O
+ O = C2H4O2 Aldehyde. Acetic acid.-- Alcoholic fermentation, the fermentation which saccharine bodies undergo when brought in contact with the yeast
plant or Torula. The sugar is converted, either directly or indirectly, into alcohol and carbonic acid, the rate
of action being dependent upon the rapidity with which the Torulæ develop.
- Acetic fermentation
A type of fermentation conducted by certain microbes in which organic materials are broken down into acetic acid
to generate ATP for energy.
- Acetone-butanol fermentation The formation of acetone and butanol through the anaerobic fermentation of glucose by
Clostridium acetobutylicum. However, most industrial plants make acetone and butanol through synthetic processes
that use petrochemicals.
- Acidogenic fermentation Any fermentation that produces a weak acid, such as lactic acid.
- Adsorption fermentation (extractive fermentation).A fermentation technique in which products of the fermentation are removed
from the broth by adsorption onto materials such as carbon or polymers. Generally, the preferred method of doing
this is to circulate the fermenting broth through the adsorbent substrate, because the fermentation products are
often toxic to the microbes.
(apoferment). The inactive protein part of an enzyme; might be needed for the enzyme to engage in catalytic activity.
- Fermentation The chemical decomposition of a substance, usually a carbohydrate, due to
the action of enzymes produced by bacteria, yeasts, or molds. Fermentation usually occurs in an oxygen-free environment,
and typically involves the conversion of starch or sugar into ethyl alcohol.
1.) Any fermentation in which there is more than one major end-product. 2.) Synonym of heterolactic fermentation.
Water located in saturated zones below the soil surface. Many wells and springs are fed by groundwater.
- Heterolactic fermentation A type of lactic acid fermentation in which sugars (e.g.
lactose, glucose) are fermented to a range of products. Compare homolactic fermentation.
- Homofermentation (homolactic
fermentation). A type of lactic acid fermentation in which sugars (such as lactose, glucose, pentose) are converted
entirely, or almost entirely, into lactic acid. Compare heterolactic fermentation. Both heterolactic and homolactic
fermentation are done by lactic acid bacteria.
- Lactic acid fermentation A type of fermentation carried out by lactic acid bacteria in which sugar (e.g. lactose, glucose,
pentose) are converted either entirely (or almost entirely) to lactic acid (homolactic fermentation) or to a mixture
of lactic acid and other products (heterolactic fermentation).
- Oxidation-fermentation test A test to determine whether a given bacterial strain has an oxidative or fermentative type of
metabolism by seeing what it does to a carbohydrate substrate.
- Ultrafiltration fermentor An apparatus for continuous fermentation that is run in conjunction with a continuous micro filtration
system to constantly remove the low-molecular-weight product of the fermentation.
- Vacuum fermentation A system for producing ethanol (grain alcohol) and other volatile fermentation products; in this
process, fermentation occurs continuously under reduced pressure, which lets the volatile product leave the cycle
as an exhaust gas, which is then collected in a separate chamber.
A device used to grow large amounts of bacteria in liquid culture. The device generally can hold more than 10 liters
of liquid growth medium, has a heater to provide constant temperature, and has an agitator for aeration.
1.) Marked by or affected with gases formed in the intestine or stomach.
2.) likely to cause such gasses
- Flora Plants or plant life especially of a region, period, or environment.
- Fluoride A compound of fluorine with another chemical element or radical.
- Folic acid
(folate, pteroylglutamic acid, PGA) A vitamin in the B complex that is found in whole grains, fresh vegetables
and is synthesized by certain nonpathogenic bacteria that live in the human intestine. Because of its involvement
in the formation of red blood cells, a deficiency in this vitamin causes anemia and poor growth.
- Fruit flies Are small dipterous insects of the genus Drosophila, which lives in fruit
in the larval state.
- Fruit sugar
A kind of sugar occurring, naturally formed, in many ripe fruits, and in honey; Levulose. the name is also, though
rarely applied to, invert sugar, or to the natural mixture, or dextrose and levulose resembling it, and found in
fruits and honey.
- Fungi (Kingdom Fungi), (sing. fungus). 1.) Kingdom Fungi includes organisms such
as slime molds, mushrooms, smuts, rusts, mildews, molds, stinkhorns, puffballs, truffles and yeasts. All are classified
in this kingdom because they absorb food in solution directly through their cell walls and reproduce through spores.
None conduct photosynthesis. 2.) A group of thallophytic plants of low organization, destitute of chlorophyll,
in which reproduction is mainly accomplished by means of asexual spores, which are produced in a great variety
of ways, though sexual reproduction is known to occur in certain Phycomycetes, or so-called algal fungi. The Fungi
appear to have originated by degeneration from various algae, losing their chlorophyll on assuming a parasitic
or saprophytic life. By some they are divided into the subclasses Phycomycetes, the lower or algal fungi; the Mesomycetes,
or intermediate fungi; and the Mycomycetes, or the higher fungi; by others into the Phycomycetes; the Ascomycetes,
or sac-spore fungi; and the Basidiomycetes, or basidial
- Spore fungi
Note: The fungi are all destitute of chlorophyll, and, therefore, to be supplied with elaborated nourishment, must
live as saprophytes or parasites. They range in size from single microscopic cells to systems of entangled threads
many feet in extent, which develop reproductive bodies as large as a man's head. The vegetative system consists
of septate or rarely unseptate filaments called hyph[ae]; the aggregation of hyph[ae] into structures of more or
less definite form is known as the mycelium.
- Gallic acidAn organic acid, very widely distributed in the vegetable kingdom, being
found in the free state in galls, tea, etc., and produced artificially. It is a white, crystalline substance, C6H2(HO)3CO2H,
with an astringent taste, and is a strong reducing agent, as employed in photography. It is usually prepared from
tannin, and both give a dark color with iron salts, forming tannate and gallate of iron, which are the essential
ingredients of common black ink.
- Gluconic acid
One of the isomeric forms of pentahydroxy-caproic acid, CH2OH(CHOH)4-COOH. It is made by the gentle oxidation of
dextrose, cane sugar, etc. It will dissolve in water and alcohols. It is used in pharmaceuticals and in some food
products, as a cleanser, and as a catalyst in textile printing. It is also called maltonic acid, and dextronic
Any of a number of compounds typically extracted from plants that can be hydrolyzed into dextrose.
- Glucuronic acid
a uronic acid formed by oxidation in animal metabolism. It is a tetrahydroxy-aldehyde acid, CHO(CHOH)4COOH, with
the configuration of glucose. It is found in urine combined with camphor, chloroform, chloral, and other aromatic
bodies. Produced by the liver, it acts to detoxify the body.
The potential that the use of a product would result in an adverse effect on man or the environment in a given
component sugar: D-glucuronic acid, L-iduronic acid, N-ulfo-D-glucosamine; function: anticoagulant; distribution:
mast cells, blood.
- Hydrogen Peroxide
This alkaline chemical has the formula H2O2 and the structure H-O-O-H, which is able to break apart into free radicals.
It is a clear, dense liquid at room temperature which freezes at -41°C and boils at 150.2°C. It can be
dissolved in water and alcohols. It is also toxic when concentrated and can be a fire and explosion hazard. Hydrogen
peroxide is used in bleaches, dyes, cleansers, antiseptics, and disinfectants. It is generated by the body as a
potentially harmful byproduct of aerobic cellular respiration which, if left alone, will cause extensive damage
- Immune system A bodily system that produces natural protection against infections and
disease. Immune. Not susceptible
or responsive esp : having a high degree of resistance to a disease. Immunity. The quality or state of being immune; esp : bodily power to resist an infectious disease
usually by preventing development of the causative microörganisms or by neutralizing its poisons. immunodeficiency. A condition resulting from
a defective immune system.
- ImmunosuppressiveImmunosuppressive drugs Drugs
that block the body's ability to fight infection or foreign substances that enter the body. A person receiving
an organ transplant is given these drugs to stop the body from rejecting the new organ or tissue. Cyclosporin is
a commonly used Immunosuppressive drug.
1.) A carbon atom double-bonded to an oxygen and single-bonded to two chemical groups (such as methane, benzene,
anything besides hydrogen). The carbon-oxygen double bond part is known as a carbonyl group (-C=O). An example
is acetone, which is a carbonyl group attached to two methanes (methyl groups: -CH3). 2. any compound containing
the carbonyl group, CO. dimethyl ketone, acetone.
- 1.Ketone body
(acetone body, ketone bodies) Any of the three compounds created by acetyl
coenzyme A (acetoacetate, hydroxybutyrate, and acetone) which are water-soluble cellular fuels normally exported
by the liver. They can build up in the blood and body tissues because of starvation, untreated diabetes mellitus,
or other disorders that interfere with carbohydrate metabolism. The body rids itself of ketones mainly through
urine, but it rids itself of acetone through the lungs, which gives the breath a characteristic fruity odor. If
ketones build up in the body long enough, they cause serious illness and coma.
(acetonemia). Medical term describing the condition of having excess ketone bodies in the bloodstream.
- Lactic acid
a mono basic acid, hydroxypropionic acid, C3H6O3, alpha-hydroxy-propionic acid known in three stereoisomeric forms:
- (a) Dextrolactic
acid (paralactic acid) also called sarcolactic acid because it occurs
in flesh, can be obtained conveniently from beef extract.
- (b) Levolactic
acid is produced by the fermentation of dextrose by micrococcus acidi levolactici.
- (c) Inactive,
ethylidene, racemic or fermentation lactic acid is the ordinary kind
found in sour milk, in the stomach, and in certain fermented foods, such as sauerkraut, silage, etc., Beta-hydroxy-propionic
acid, CHOH.CH2-COOH, called also ethylene-lactic acid, is not found in the body.
1.) The immature, wingless, and often worm like form that hatches from the egg of many insects. 2. the early form
of any animal that at birth or hatching is fundamentally unlike its parent.
To pass a liquid and especially water through to carry off the soluble components.; also, to dissolve out by such
means (leach alkali from ashes).
The movement of a pesticide chemical or another substance downward through soil as a result of water movement,
potentially causing contamination of groundwater resources.
- Lead A
heavy soft malleable bluish white metallic chemical element that is found mostly in combination and is used in
pipes, cable sheaths, solder, and type metal.
The lifeless portion of tissue, either animal or vegetable, situated between the cells; the intercellular substance.
A heavy silver-white metallic element that is liquid at ordinary temperatures--also called quick silver.
The act or process, by which living tissues or cells take up and convert into their own proper substance the nutritive
material brought to them by the blood, or by which they transform their cell protoplasm into simpler substances,
which are fitted either for excretion or for some special purpose, as in the manufacture of the digestive ferments.
Hence, metabolism may be either constructive (anabolism), or destructive (katabolism).
The series of chemical changes which take place in an organism, by means of which food is manufactured and utilized
and waste materials are eliminated.
Any product of metabolism, especially a transformed chemical.
microörganism (microbe). A living organism too small to be seen with the naked eye; includes bacteria, fungi,
protozoans, and microscopic algae; also includes viruses.
- Microörganisms Any microscopic form of life -- particularly applied to bacteria and similar organisms.
- Mold. Mould;
n. A growth of minute fungi of various kinds, especially those of the great groups Hyphomycetes, and Physomycetes,
forming on damp or decaying organic matter. Note: The common blue mold of cheese, the brick-red cheese mold, and
the scarlet or orange strata which grow on tubers or roots stored up for use, when commencing to decay, are familiar
- Mutagen An
agent that causes a permanent genetic change in a cell other than that which occurs during normal genetic recombination.
The ability of a substance to produce a detectable and heritable change in genetic material which may be transmitted
to the progeny of affected individuals through germ cells (germinal mutation) or from one cell generation to another
within the individual (somatic mutation)
An alteration in genetic structure which is passed from one generation to the next.
Infection with or disease caused by a fungus--mycotic.
Toxins from yeast and fungi.
A salt or ester of nitric acid.
Harmful or injurious especially to health or morals: Unwholesome (noxious fumes).
a.) of, relating to, or derived from living organisms. b.) of, relating to, or containing carbon compounds. c.) arising from an organism. d. pertaining to substances derived from living
Any organized body of living economy; an individual animal or plant.
A metallo protein which catalyzes the reduction of molecular oxygen independently of hydrogen peroxide.
- Glucose oxidase
An enzyme which converts glucose into gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2).
Any reaction which removes electrons from a molecule or atom.
Any disease-causing agent, usually applied to living agents.
Giving origin to disease or to morbid symptoms.
- Pellicle 1.) A thin skin or film, such as a thin film on a surface
of a liquid.2.)A relatively rigid layer
of proteinaceous elements just beneath the plasma membrane in many protozoa and algae. The plasma membrane is sometimes
considered part of the pellicle.
- PesticideA poisonous agent used to destroy pests.
Potential of Hydrogen Hydrogen ion concentration; used to express the degree
of acidity or alkalinity of a material.
The science which treats of the functions of the living organism and its parts.
(glycan) Any of many carbohydrates that are made up of chains of simple sugars. mucopolysaccharides. A group of polysaccharides which contains
hexosamine, which may or may not be combined with protein and which, dispersed in water, form many of the mucins.
mucin. the chief constituent
- Homopolysaccharide A polysaccharide made up of only one kind of simple sugar.
- Lipopolysaccharide A lipid bound to a polysaccharide; these biomolecules are frequently found on the outside of cell
membranes, especially those of bacteria.
Any one of a group of complex nitrogenous compounds, widely distributed in plants and animals and which form the
principal constituents of the cell protoplasm.
- Pyrex Heat-proof
A rare metal discovered in 1898 in pitchblende. Metallic radium is unstable in air, the chloride, bromide, sulfate,
and carbonate being the salts used. It is a spontaneous source of radiation, and maintains a temperature of from
2-5F. above the surrounding atmosphere. Radium salts emit, besides heat and light, three distinct kinds of radiation.
Radium rays have been used to treat lupus, eczema, psoriasis, xanthoma, mycosis fungoides, and other skin diseases;
for the removal of papilomas, granulomas and moles; for palliative treatment in carcinoma and sarcoma, and in myelogenous
and lymphatic leukemia.
- Sodium a
soft, silver-white, alkaline metallic element; symbol, Na; It has a strong affinity for oxygen and other nonmetallic
elements. Sodium provides the chief cation of the extra cellular body fluids. s.
chloride,a white crystalline compound soluble in water; a necessary constituent of the human body and consequently
of foods--called also common table salt.[cation: a positively charged ion.]
- Sulfate A salt or ester of sulfuric
- Surface water Water at the soil
surface in open bodies such as streams, rivers, ponds, lakes and oceans.
A type of organism-organism interaction where one organism lives in intimate association with another. The types
of symbiotic relationships are mutualism, commensalism, parasitism, and amensalism.
- Mutualism (mutualist).A
type of symbiosis where two (or more) organisms from different species live in close proximity to one another and
rely on one another for nutrients, protection, or other life functions. Both (or all) of the organisms involved
benefit from the relationship.
- Commensalism (commensal).
A type of symbiosis where two (or more) organisms from different species live in close proximity to one another,
in which one member is unaffected by the relationship and the other benefits from it.
- Parasitism (parasite).
A type of symbiosis where two (or more) organisms from different species live in close proximity to one another,
in which one member depends on another for its nutrients, protection, and/or other life functions. The dependent
member (the parasite) benefits from the relationship while the other one (the host) is harmed by it.
- Amensalism (adj.
amensal). A type of symbiosis where two (or more) organisms from different species live in close proximity to one
another, where one of the members suffers as a result of the relationship, while the other is unaffected by it.
Associated in symbiosis; living together.
- Systemic detoxification Pertaining to, or affecting the body as a whole.
Tannic acid A white or yellowish astringent powder, (OH)3C6-H2 CO.O.C6H2(OH)2COOH,
usually obtained from nutgalls, the excrescences produced on young twigs of Quercus infectoria and other species
of Quercus: used as an astringent. Bitter-tasting, astringent, complex aromatic compounds, some of which are glucosides,
possibly giving protection to the plants they are found in or concerned with pigment formation.
- Tea 1.)
The dried leaves of Thea chinensis, containing caffeine and tannic acid, or a decoction thereof. 2.) Any decoction
Pertaining to, due to, or of the nature of, a poison.
Any disease condition due to poisoning.
A loss of substance on a cutaneous or mucous surface, causing gradual disintegration and necrosis of the tissues.
1.) A weak and impure dilution of acetic acid; especially a sour liquid consisting chiefly of acetic acid, formed
by the fermentation of cider, wine, etc., or by the distillation of wood. 2.) A medicinal solution of a drug in
dilute acetic acid.
- Mother of vinegar A film or membrane which is developed on the surface of fermented alcoholic liquids, such as vinegar,
wine, etc., and acts as a means of conveying the oxygen of the air to the alcohol and other combustible principles
of the liquid, thus leading to their oxidation. The film is composed of a mass of rapidly developing microörganisms
of the genus Mycoderma, and in the mother of vinegar the microörganisms (Mycoderma aceti) composing the film
are the active agents in the conversion of the alcohol into vinegar. When thickened by growth, the film may settle
to the bottom of the fluid. See Acetous fermentation, under Fermentation.
- Vitamin B
- Vitamin B1
(thiamin) A water-soluble vitamin the body needs to make enzymes to break
down carbohydrates. It is found in foods such as beans, green vegetables, egg yolk, liver, corn, and brown rice.
- Vitamin B12
(cobalamine) This ring-shaped, cobalt-containing vitamin is a crucial part
of the entry of amino acids and fatty acids into the Krebs cycle. It is the only biomolecule known to have a carbon-metal
- Vitamin B2
(riboflavin, lactoflavin) A water-soluble vitamin that serves as a hydrogen
carrier in coenzymes involved in oxidation-reduction metabolic processes.
- Vitamin B3
(pantothenic acid) A vitamin found in all human cells which is a constituent
of coenzyme A; it is a vital nutrient for some animal species, but humans don't seem to show any ill effects from
a dietary deficiency of this vitamin.
- Vitamin B6
(pyridoxine, pyridoxal phosphate) Any of the various derivatives of pyroxidine;
this water-soluble vitamin is a critical coenzyme in the metabolism of amino acids. It is found in most foods such
as meats, liver, vegetables, whole-grain cereals and egg yolks.
- Vitamin B7
(niacin, nicotinic acid) This vitamin is necessary for the synthesis of
various enzymes and acts to reduce blood cholesterol. A deficiency in this vitamin causes pellagra, which is characterized
by dermatitis, diarrhea, and inflammation of the mucous membranes.
- Yeast Any
of many small, single-celled fungi in the phylum Ascomycota that reproduce by budding; the yeasts used to produce
alcohol through fermentation or to leaven bread are all in the genus Saccharomyces.
- Saccharomyces cerevisiae (baker's yeast, brewer's yeast, budding yeast) A species of
yeast which is an important model organism for biological study, particularly for genetics and molecular biology.
The entire genome of this species has been base sequenced and it is used to do research on the basic cellular mechanics
of replication, recombination, cell division and metabolism. S. cerevisiae is also economically important in the
food industry, where it is used to ferment grain sugars to make beer and as baker's yeast for baking bread or making
other food which requires rising by gas bubbles of carbon dioxide. It is also sometimes taken as a vitamin supplement
for protein, the B vitamins, and folic acid.
- Schizosaccharomyces pombe (fission yeast). S. pombe is a species of yeast, also called
fission yeast, which is used as a model organism for biological and medical study. They are useful because most
of the time they are haploid so that both recessive and dominant mutations in the genome will result in a mutant
phenotype (since each individual yeast cell has only one copy of each gene, unlike in diploid organisms where a
normal copy of a gene can make up for recessive mutations, resulting in mutant phenotypes only for dominant mutations).
- Killer yeast
A yeast that secretes a toxin that can kill other yeasts.
A bluish white metallic chemical element that tarnishes only slightly in moist air at ordinary temperatures and
is used especially as a protective coating for iron.
A jelly like mass of bacterial cells produced by species such as Zooglea
ramigera. These masses are often used in the treatment of raw sewage.
- SCOBY Acronym
for Symbiotic Colony Of Bacteria and Yeast. (the pellicle, the "mother" colony, the "baby" colony.)
10. OBLIGATORY DISCLAIMER:
This Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) is based, in part, on the personal experiences of
the members of the Kombucha mailing list. It should not be regarded as a complete or definitive manual on Kombucha
but rather as a collection of practical everyday answers to questions that come up when starting to make Kombucha
Tea. This article is provided as is without any express or implied warranty. While every effort has been taken
to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this article, the authors/contributors assume no responsibility
for errors or omissions, or for damages resulting from the use of the information contained herein.
Permission is granted to freely copy this document in electronic
form, or in print if the publication is distributed without charge, provided it is copied in its entirety without
modification and appropriate credits are included. On the WWW, however, you must link here rather than copy it.
Any other use requires explicit permission by the author.
you have comments or suggestions, email me
Colleen M. Allen
Copyright 1996 - 2000 Colleen M. Allen
Maintained by: Bob Williams