It is very difficult to present this chapter in a format that allows draft-to-completed text comparisons, because Tolkien almost never wrote out a whole chapter before returning to it for revision. This is particularly so for "Of Herbs and Stewed Rabbit", whose existence and events were never anticipated by the author, and which expanded under his pen even as he wrote what he thought was to be an uneventful three-day hike from the Morannon to the Cross Roads and Minas Morgul.


The first two columns of draft and commentary material are keyed to the third column, where the final text from The Two Towers is reproduced fully and in published order. All passages (quotations and commentary) from HoME: The War of the Ring are marked with sequential counters like so: §1., which will preserve the order in which they appear in Christopher Tolkien's writing. Each passage is linked to its following passage, to allow the reader to follow CT's argument regarding his father's process of composition.


Quotations from Tolkien's manuscripts are in Times New Roman font; and commentary by editor Christopher Tolkien is in Arial font a few points smaller. Greyed out text represents language that is "carried over" more or less intact into later manuscripts, or the published book, from the point where it is first quoted. Red text is my highlighting of significant points in Christopher Tolkien's presentation.


Christopher Tolkien gives the following introduction to this chapter of his book:

§1. For this chapter, written as a continuation of ‘The Black Gate is Closed’ and only separated from it and numbered ‘XXXV’ after its completion, there exists a good deal of (discontinuous) initial drafting, some of it illegible, and a completed manuscript, some of which is itself the primary composition. As in the last chapter I distinguish the texts as ‘draft’ and ‘manuscript’ (in this case no other manuscript was made, see p. 121).

On 26 April 1944, in a letter to me already cited (p. 121), my father said that on the previous day he had ‘struggled with a recalcitrant passage in “The Ring”’, and then went on to say that ‘at this point I require to know how much later the moon gets up each night when nearing full, and how to stew a rabbit!’ From drafts and manuscript it is easy to see what this recalcitrant passage was: the southward journey as far as the point where Sam’s thoughts turned to the possibility of finding food more appetizing than the waybread of the Elves (TT p. 260). §2.


First draft


Published text

§2. They rested for the few hours of daylight that were left, ate a little and drank sparingly, though they had hope of water soon in the streams that flowed down into Anduin from Hebel Duath. As the dusk deepened they set out. The moon did not rise until late and it grew soon dark.  §3.


They rested for the few hours of daylight that were left, ate a little and drank sparingly, though they had hope of water soon in the streams that flowed down into Anduin from Hebel Duath. As the dusk deepened they set out. The moon did not rise until late and it grew soon dark.

     For the few hours of daylight that were left they rested, shifting into the shade as the sun moved, until at last the shadow of the western rim of their dell grew long, and darkness filled all the hollow. Then they ate a little, and drank sparingly. Gollum ate nothing, but he accepted water gladly.

     `Soon get more now,' he said, licking his lips. `Good water runs down in streams to the Great River, nice water in the lands we are going to. Sméagol will get food there too, perhaps. He's very hungry, yes, "gollum"!' He set his two large flat hands on his shrunken belly, and a pale green light came into his eyes.


     The dusk was deep when at length they set out, creeping over the westward rim of the dell, and fading like ghosts into the broken country on the borders of the road: The moon was now three nights from the full, but it did not climb over the mountains until nearly midnight, and the early night was very dark.


§5. Here the single red light in the Towers of the Teeth appears, but they passed out of sight of it after only a few miles, ‘turning away southward round a great dark shoulder of the lower mountains’, whereas in TT this took place ‘when night was growing old and they were already weary’.[i] §6.

[i] In the manuscript as in the draft, ‘The moon was not due until late that night’; in TT ‘the moon was now three nights from the full, but it did not climb over the mountains till nearly midnight.’


A single red light burned high up in the Towers of the Teeth, but otherwise no sign could be seen or heard of the sleepless watch on the Morannon.

     For many miles the red eye seemed to stare at them as they fled, stumbling through a barren stony country. They did not dare to take the road, but they kept it on their left, following its line as well as they could at a little distance. At last, when night was growing old and they were already weary, for they had taken only one short rest, the eye dwindled to a small fiery point and then vanished: they had turned the dark northern shoulder of the lower mountains and were heading southwards.




§8. The precise sequence of composition as between drafts and manuscript is hard to work out, but I think that it was probably at this point that my father wrote a very brief outline for the story to come, together with notes on names. Frustratingly, his writing here has in places resisted all attempts to puzzle it out.


After so much labour and peril the days they spent on it seemed almost a rest. In Gollum’s reckoning it was some 20 [changed from some other figure] leagues from the Morannon to the outer wards of Minas Morghul, maybe more. §9


§11. In Gollum’s reckoning it was some thirty leagues from the Morannon to the crossing of the ways above Elostirion, and he hoped to cover that distance in three journeys. But maybe the distance was greater or they went slower than he hoped, for at the end of the third night they had not come there.


This passage was rejected at once, but before this was done ‘thirty leagues’ was changed to ‘twenty’, and it was perhaps at this time that a sentence was added earlier, following ‘But they were not going quick enough for Gollum’ (TT p. 256): ‘In his reckoning it was twenty leagues from the Morannon to the crossing of the ways above Osgiliath,[i] and he hoped to cover that distance in three journeys’ (where TT has ‘nearly thirty leagues’ and ‘four journeys’).

My father now, if my analysis of the sequence is correct, decided that he was treating the journey from the Morannon to the Crossroads too cursorily; and his next step, on the same page of the manuscript, was to return to the first night (which was that of 5 February):  §12.

[i] On the continuing hesitation between Elostirion and Osgiliath at this time see p. 133 and note 7.


     With hearts strangely lightened they now rested again, but not for long. They were not going quick enough for Gollum. By his reckoning it was nearly thirty leagues from the Morannon to the cross-roads above Osgiliath, and he hoped to cover that distance in four journeys. So soon they struggled on once more, until the dawn began to spread slowly in the wide grey solitude. They had then walked almost eight leagues; and the hobbits could not have gone any further, even if they had dared.


§6. In this text they came to the less barren lands, with thickets of trees on the slopes, during that first night, and the shrubs which in TT the hobbits did not know (being strange to them) were here ‘unrecognizable in the dark’. §7.


     The growing light revealed to them a land already less barren and ruinous. The mountains still loomed up ominously on their left, but near at hand they could see the southward road, now bearing away from the black roots of the hills and slanting westwards. Beyond it were slopes covered with sombre trees like dark clouds, but all about them lay a tumbled heathland, grown with ling and broom and cornel, and other shrubs that they did not know. Here and there they saw knots of tall pine-trees. The hearts of the hobbits rose again a little in spite of weariness: the air was fresh and fragrant, and it reminded them of the uplands of the Northfarthing far away. It seemed good to be reprieved, to walk in a land that had only been for a few years under the dominion of the Dark Lord and was not yet fallen wholly into decay. But they did not forget their danger, nor the Black Gate that was still all too near, hidden though it was behind the gloomy heights. They looked about for a hiding-place where they could shelter from evil eyes while the light lasted.


     The day passed uneasily. They lay deep in the heather and counted out the slow hours, in which there seemed little change; for they were still under the shadows of the Ephel Dœath, and the sun was veiled. Frodo slept at times, deeply and peacefully, either trusting Gollum or too tired to trouble about him; but Sam found it difficult to do more than doze, even when Gollum was plainly fast asleep, whiffling and twitching in his secret dreams. Hunger, perhaps, more than mistrust kept him wakeful: he had begun to long for a good homely meal, `something hot out of the pot'.

     As soon as the land faded into a formless grey under coming night, they started out again.


§3. After a few miles over broken slopes and difficult [?country] they took to the southward road, for they needed speed. Ever they listened with straining ears for sounds of foot or hoof upon the road ahead and behind  . . .


§4. After the description of the road, kept in repair below the Morannon but further south encroached upon by the wild, the opening draft peters out, and at this point, probably, my father began the writing of the manuscript. §5.


§7. After a short rest about  midnight Gollum led them down onto the southward road, the description of which follows. §8.



In a little while Gollum led them down on to the southward road; and after that they went on more quickly, though the danger was greater. Their ears were strained for the sound of hoof or foot on the road ahead, or following them from behind; but the night passed, and they heard no sound of walker or rider.

     The road had been made in a long lost time: and for perhaps thirty miles below the Morannon it had been newly repaired, but as it went south the wild encroached upon it. The handiwork of Men of old could still be seen in its straight sure flight and level course: now and again it cut its way through hillside slopes, or leaped over a stream upon a wide shapely arch of enduring masonry; but at last all signs of stonework faded, save for a broken pillar here and there, peering out of bushes at the side, or old paving-stones still lurking amid weeds and moss. Heather and trees and bracken scrambled down and overhung the banks, or sprawled out over the surface. It dwindled at last to a country cart-road little used; but it did not wind: it held on its own sure course and guided them by the swiftest way.

§10. The next step in the development of the ‘recalcitrant passage’ is seen, I think, in what follows the description the southward road in the manuscript:


After the labours and perils they had just endured the days that they spent upon the road seemed almost pleasant, though fear was about them and darkness lay before them. The weather now was good, though the wind blowing from the north-west over the Misty Mountains far away had a sharp tooth. They passed on into the northern marches of that land that men once called Ithilien, a fair country of climbing woods and swift falling streams. §11.


§22. He now returned again to the fair copy manuscript, and without changing, then or later, the opening of the chapter he wrote the story almost as it stands in TT, pp. 258 ff. (from ‘So they passed into the northern marches of that land that Men once called Ithilien’). At this stage, therefore, the chronology of the journey was thus:

Feb. 5    Left the Morannon at dusk, and came into a less barren country of heathland. Took to the southward road about midnight (p. 132).

Feb. 6    Halted at dawn. Description of Ithilien and its herbs and flowers. Sam’s cooking, and the coming of the men of Gondor.

With the introduction of a long rider to the following typescript text an extra day and night were inserted into the journey between the Morannon and the place of Sam’s cooking (see the Note on Chronology at the end of this chapter). At dawn of this added day they found themselves in a less barren country of heathland, and they passed the day hidden in deep heather (TT p. 257); at dusk they set out again, and only now took to the southward road.


So they passed into the northern marches of that land that Men once called Ithilien, a fair country of climbing woods and swift-falling streams.

§12. All that night they plodded on, and all the next. The road drew ever nearer to the course of the Great River and further from the shadow of Hebel Duath on their left. That second night the moon was full. Not long before the dawn they saw it sinking round and yellow far beyond the great vale below them. Here and there a white gleam showed where Anduin rolled, a mighty stream swollen with the waters of Emyn Muil and of slow-winding Entwash. Far far away, pale ghosts above the mists, the peaks of the Black Mountains were caught by the beaming moon. There glimmered through the night the snows on Mount Mindolluin; but though Frodo’s eyes stared out into the west wondering where in the vastness of the land his old companions might now be, he did not know that under


This passage was in turn struck out. The last words stand at the foot of a page.[i]

It was now, as it seems, that my father decided to introduce the episode of the rabbits caught by Gollum (developing it from the passage where it first appears, given in note 6). §13

[i] The last sentence is in fact, and rather oddly, completed by the first passage given in note 6, thus:


There glimmered through the night the snows on Mount Mindolluin; but though Frodo’s eyes stared out into the west wondering where in the vastness of the land his old companions might now be, he did not know that under / that great mountain’s side was built Minas Tirith, the Tower of Guard, where Gandalf walked now deep in thought.


See the Note on Chronology below.




§13. All that night they plodded on. At the first sign of day they halted, §14

§20. another draft, beginning precisely as does that just given, in which the story of Sam’s cooking was developed almost to the final form. §21.

The night became fine under star and round moon, and it seemed to the hobbits that the fragrance of the air grew as they went forward; and from the blowing and muttering of Gollum it seemed that he noticed it too, and did not relish it. At the first signs of day they halted again. They had come to the end of a long cutting, deep, and sheer-sided in the middle, by which the road clove its way through a stony ridge. Now they climbed up the westward bank and looked abroad.



  §21. On one of the pages of this text my father penciled a note: ‘Describe baytrees and spicy herbs as they march.’ It was thus the cooking of the rabbits that led to the account of the shrubs and herbs of Ithilien (TT p. 258) – ‘which is proving a lovely land’, as he said in his letter of 30 April 1944 (Letters no. 64).

Day was opening in the sky, and they saw that the mountains were now much further off, receding eastward in a long curve that was lost in the distance. Before them, as they turned west, gentle slopes ran down into dim hazes far below. All about them were small woods of resinous trees, fir and cedar and cypress, and other kinds unknown in the Shire, with wide glades among them; and everywhere there was a wealth of sweet-smelling herbs and shrubs. The long journey from Rivendell had brought them far south of their own land, but not until now in this more sheltered region had the hobbits felt the change of clime. Here Spring was already busy about them: fronds pierced moss and mould, larches were green-fingered, small flowers were opening in the turf, birds were singing. Ithilien, the garden of Gondor now desolate kept still a dishevelled dryad loveliness.

     South and west it looked towards the warm lower vales of Anduin, shielded from the east by the Ephel Dœath and yet not under the mountain-shadow, protected from the north by the Emyn Muil, open to the southern airs and the moist winds from the Sea far away. Many great trees grew there, planted long ago, falling into untended age amid a riot of careless descendants; and groves and thickets there were of tamarisk and pungent terebinth, of olive and of bay; and there were junipers and myrtles; and thymes that grew in bushes, or with their woody creeping stems mantled in deep tapestries the hidden stones; sages of many kinds putting forth blue flowers, or red, or pale green; and marjorams and new-sprouting parsleys, and many herbs of forms and scents beyond the garden-lore of Sam. The grots and rocky walls were already starred with saxifrages and stonecrops. Primeroles and anemones were awake in the filbert-brakes; and asphodel and many lily-flowers nodded their half-opened heads in the grass: deep green grass beside the pools, where falling streams halted in cool hollows on their journey down to Anduin.

     The travellers turned their backs on the road and went downhill. As they walked, brushing their way through bush and herb, sweet odours rose about them. Gollum coughed and retched; but the hobbits breathed deep, and suddenly Sam laughed, for heart's ease not for jest. They followed a stream that went quickly down before them. Presently it brought them to a small clear lake in a shallow dell: it lay in the broken ruins of an ancient stone basin, the carven rim of which was almost wholly covered with mosses and rose-brambles; iris-swords stood in ranks about it, and water-lily leaves floated on its dark gently-rippling surface; but it was deep and fresh, and spilled ever softly out over a stony lip at the far end.

     Here they washed themselves and drank their fill at the in-falling freshet. Then they sought for a resting-place, and a hiding-place: for this land, fair-seeming still, was nonetheless now territory of the Enemy. They had not come very far from the road, and yet even in so short a space they had seen scars of the old wars, and the newer wounds made by the Orcs and other foul servants of the Dark Lord: a pit of uncovered filth and refuse; trees hewn down wantonly and left to die, with evil runes or the fell sign of the Eye cut in rude strokes on their bark.

     Sam scrambling below the outfall of the lake. smelling and touching the unfamiliar plants and trees, forgetful for the moment of Mordor, was reminded suddenly of their ever-present peril. He stumbled on a ring still scorched by fire, and in the midst of it he found a pile of charred and broken bones and skulls. The swift growth of the wild with briar and eglantine and trailing clematis was already drawing a veil over this place of dreadful feast and slaughter; but it was not ancient. He hurried back to his companions, but he said nothing: the bones were best left in peace and not pawed and routed by Gollum.

     `Let's find a place to lie up in,' he said. 'Not lower down. Higher up for me.'



§14. and lay beneath a bank in a brake of old brown bracken overshadowed by dark pinetrees. Water flowed down not far away, cold out of the hills, and good to drink. §15        A little way back above the lake they found a deep brown bed of last year's fern. Beyond it was a thicket of dark-leaved bay-trees climbing up a steep bank that was crowned with old cedars. Here they decided to rest and pass the day, which already promised to be bright and warm. A good day for strolling on their way along the groves and glades of Ithilien; but though Orcs may shun the sunlight, there were too many places here where they could lie hid and watch; and other evil eyes were abroad: Sauron had many servants. Gollum, in any case, would not move under the Yellow Face. Soon it would look over the dark ridges of the Ephel Dúath, and he would faint and cower in the light and heat.

§15. Sam had been giving some earnest thought to food as they marched. Now that the despair of the impassable Gate was behind him, he did not feel so inclined as his master to take no thought for their livelihood beyond the end of their errand; and anyway it seemed wiser to him to save the elvish bread for worse times ahead. Two days or more had gone since he reckoned that they had a bare supply for three weeks.[i] ‘If we reach the Fire in that time we’ll be lucky at this rate,’ he thought. ‘And we may be wanting to come back. We may.’ Besides at the end of [?their] long night march he felt more hungry than usual.

With all this in his mind he turned to look for Gollum. Gollum was crawling away through the bracken. §16

[i] This sentence replaced a form of it in which Sam’s reckoning had been that they had ‘a bare ten days’ supply of waybread: that left eight.’ In the manuscript of ‘The Passage of the Marshes’, corresponding to that in TT p. 231, Sam said ‘I reckon we’ve got enough to last, say, 10 days now’. This was changed to ‘three weeks or so’, no doubt at the same time as the sentence in the present text was rewritten.

In TT (p. 260) it is said at this point that ‘Six days or more had passed’ since Sam made his reckoning of the remaining lembas, whereas here it is ‘Two days or more’. Three days had in fact passed, the 3rd, 4th and 5th of February (p. 118). In TT the length of the journey had been increased, both by the two extra days during which they crossed the Noman-lands (pp. 112, 120), and by an extra day added to the journey from the Morannon to the place of the stewed rabbit episode (p.135).


     Sam had been giving earnest thought to food as they marched. Now that the despair of the impassable Gate was behind him, he did not feel so inclined as his master to take no thought for their livelihood beyond the end of their errand; and anyway it seemed wiser to him to save the waybread of the Elves for worse times ahead. Six days or more had passed since he reckoned that they had only a bare supply for three weeks.

     'If we reach the Fire in that time, we'll be lucky at this rate! ' he thought. `And we might be wanting to get back. We might! '

     Besides, at the end of a long night-march, and after bathing and drinking, he felt even more hungry than usual. A supper, or a breakfast, by the fire in the old kitchen at Bagshot Row was what he really wanted. An idea struck him and he turned to Gollum. Gollum had just begun to sneak off on his own, and he was crawling away on all fours through the fern.


§16. ‘Hi!’ said Sam. ‘Where are you going? Hunting? Now look here, my friend, you don’t like our food, but if you could find something fit for a hobbit to eat I’d be grateful.’

Yes, yess. §17



     `Hi! Gollum! ' said Sam. `Where are you going? Hunting? Well see here, old noser, you don't like our food, and I'd not be sorry for a change myself. Your new motto's "always ready to help". Could you find anything fit for a hungry hobbit? '

     `Yes, perhaps, yes,' said Gollum. `Sméagol always helps, if they asks - if they asks nicely.'

     `Right!' said Sam `I does ask. And if that isn't nice enough, I begs.'


§17. Gollum brings back 2 rabbits. §18  

     Gollum disappeared. He was away some time, and Frodo after a few mouthfuls of "lembas" settled deep into the brown fern and went to sleep. Sam looked at him. The early daylight was only just creeping down into the shadows under the trees, but he saw his master's face very clearly, and his hands, too, lying at rest on the ground beside him. He was reminded suddenly of Frodo as he had lain, asleep in the house of Elrond, after his deadly wound. Then as he had kept watch Sam had noticed that at times a light seemed to be shining faintly within; but now the light was even clearer and stronger. Frodo's face was peaceful, the marks of fear and care had left it; but it looked old, old and beautiful, as if the chiselling of the shaping years was now revealed in many fine lines that had before been hidden, though the identity of the face was not changed. Not that Sam Gamgee put it that way to himself. He shook his head, as if finding words useless, and murmured: `I love him. He's like that, and sometimes it shines through, somehow. But I love him, whether or no.'

     Gollum returned quietly and peered over Sam's shoulder. Looking at Frodo, he shut his eyes and crawled away without a sound. Sam came to him a moment later and found him chewing something and muttering to himself. On the ground beside him lay two small rabbits, which he was beginning to eye greedily.

     'Sméagol always helps,' he said. `He has brought rabbits, nice rabbits. But master has gone to sleep, and perhaps Sam wants to sleep. Doesn't want rabbits now? Sméagol tries to help, but he can't catch things all in a minute.'

     Sam, however, had no objection to rabbit at all, and said so. At least not to cooked rabbit. All hobbits, of course, can cook, for they begin to learn the art before their letters (which many never reach): but Sam was a good cook, even by hobbit reckoning, and he had done a good deal of the camp-cooking on their travels, when there was a chance. He still hopefully carried some of his gear in his pack: a small tinder-box, two small shallow pans, the smaller fitting into the larger; inside them a wooden spoon, a short two-pronged fork and some skewers were stowed; and hidden at the bottom of the pack in a flat wooden box a dwindling treasure, some salt. But he needed a fire, and other things besides. He thought for a bit, while he took out his knife, cleaned and whetted it, and began to dress the rabbits. He was not going to leave Frodo alone asleep even for a few minutes.

     'Now, Gollum,' he said, 'I've another job for you. Go and fill these pans with water, and bring 'em back! '

     'Sméagol will fetch water, yes,' said Gollum. 'But what does the hobbit want all that water for? He has drunk, he has washed.'

     'Never you mind,' said Sam. `If you can't guess, you'll soon find out. And the sooner you fetch the water, the sooner you'll learn. Don't you damage one of my pans, or I'll carve you into mincemeat.'

     While Gollum was away Sam took another look at Frodo. He was still sleeping quietly, but Sam was now struck most by the leanness of his face and hands. 'Too thin and drawn he is,' he muttered. 'Not right for a hobbit. If I can get these coneys cooked, I'm going to wake him up.'

     Sam gathered a pile of the driest fern, and then scrambled up the bank collecting a bundle of twigs and broken wood; the fallen branch of a cedar at the top gave him a good supply. He cut out some turves at the foot of the bank just outside the fern-brake, and made a shallow hole and laid his fuel in it. Being handy with flint and tinder he soon had a small blaze going. It made little or no smoke but gave off an aromatic scent. He was just stooping over his fire, shielding it and building it up with heavier wood, when Gollum returned, carrying the pans carefully and grumbling to himself.


§18. Angry at fire (a) fear (b) rage at nice juicy rabbits being spoiled. Pacified by Frodo (promise of fish?). §19




      He set the pans down, and then suddenly saw what Sam was doing. He gave a thin hissing shriek, and seemed to be both frightened and angry. `Ach! Sss - no!' he cried. `No! Silly hobbits, foolish, yes foolish! They mustn't do it!'

     `Mustn't do what?' asked Sam in surprise.

     `Not make the nassty red tongues,' hissed Gollum. `Fire, fire! It's dangerous, yes it is. It burns, it kills. And it will bring enemies, yes it will.'

     'I don't think so,' said Sam. `Don't see why it should, if you don't put wet stuff on it and make a smother. But if it does, it does. I'm going to risk it, anyhow. I'm going to stew these coneys.'

     'Stew the rabbits!' squealed Gollum in dismay. `Spoil beautiful meat Sméagol saved for you, poor hungry Sméagol! What for? What for, silly hobbit? They are young, they are tender, they are nice. Eat them, eat them!' He clawed at the nearest rabbit, already skinned and lying by the fire.

     `Now, now! ' said Sam. `Each to his own fashion. Our bread chokes you, and raw coney chokes me. If you give me a coney, the coney's mine, see, to cook, if I have a mind. And I have. You needn't watch me. Go and catch another and eat it as you fancy - somewhere private and out o' my sight. Then you won't see the fire, and I shan't see you, and we'll both be the happier. I'll see the fire don't smoke, if that's any comfort to you.'

     Gollum withdrew grumbling, and crawled into the fern. Sam busied himself with his pans. `What a hobbit needs with coney,' he said to himself, `is some herbs and roots, especially taters - not to mention bread. Herbs we can manage, seemingly.'

     `Gollum!' he called softly. `Third time pays for all. I want some herbs.' Gollum's head peeped out of the fern, but his looks were neither helpful nor friendly. `A few bay-leaves, some thyme and sage, will do - before the water boils,' said Sam.

     `No!' said Gollum. ` Sméagol is not pleased. And Sméagol doesn't like smelly leaves. He doesn't eat grasses or roots, no precious, not till he's starving or very sick, poor Sméagol. '

     `Sméagol'll get into real true hot water, when this water boils, if he don't do as he's asked,' growled Sam. `Sam'll put his head in it, yes precious. And I'd make him look for turnips and carrots, and taters too, if it was the time o' the year. I'll bet there's all sorts of good things running wild in this country. I'd give a lot for half a dozen taters.'

     `Sméagol won't go, O no precious, not this time,' hissed Gollum. `He's frightened, and he's very tired, and this hobbit's not nice, not nice at all. Sméagol won't grub for roots and carrotses and - taters. What's taters, precious, eh, what's taters?

     `Po-ta-toes,' said Sam. 'The Gaffer's delight, and rare good ballast for an empty belly. But you won't find any, so you needn't look. But be good Sméagol and fetch me the herbs, and I'll think better of you. What's more, if you turn over a new leaf, and keep it turned, I'll cook you some taters one of these days. I will: fried fish and chips served by S. Gamgee. You couldn't say no to that.'

     `Yes, yes we could. Spoiling nice fish, scorching it. Give me fish "now", and keep nassty chips! '

     `Oh you're hopeless,' said Sam. 'Go to sleep!'








§9. Gollum finds food. Night of Full Moon, they see a white . . . far away up in the dark shadow of the hills to left, at head of a wide [?re-entrant, sc. valley], Minas Morghul.[i] Next night they come to the cross roads. An[d] a great [?stone] figure . . . [ii] back to Elostirion . . .  [Struck out: Sarnel Ubed.[iii] Ennyn. Aran] Taur Toralt [struck out: Sarn Torath.] Annon Torath. Aranath. reminding Frodo of the Kings at Sern Aranath. or Sairn Ubed.

But his head was struck off and in mockery some orcs? had set  . . .  a clay ball  . . .  The red eye was [?painted over].[iv]


For Sern Aranath as the name of the Pillars of the Kings see VII.366 note 21; and cf. TT p. 311 (at the end of ‘Journey to the Cross-roads’): ‘The brief glow fell upon a huge sitting figure, still and solemn as the great stone kings of Argonath.’ It is not clear to me whether Sairn Ubed is an alternative to Sern Aranath. On this same page, later but not much later, my father made further notes on names (see p. 137), and among these appears the following:

The two King Stones  Sern Ubed (denial)

                                      Sern Aranath

The word denial makes one think of the description of the Pillars of the Kings in ‘The Great River’ (FR p. 409), where in the earliest draft of that passage (VII.360) ‘the left hand of each was raised beside his head palm outwards in gesture of warning and refusal.’[v]

It is plain from this text that at this time the emergence of Faramir and the Window on the West was totally unforeseen, while on the other hand the broken statue at the Cross-roads was already present. §10.



[i] That the illegible word is re-entrant seems assured by the recurrence of this word in perfectly clear form and in the same context in the text given on p. 134. In the present text at this point there is drawn a wavy line; this clearly indicates the line of the mountains pierced by a very wide valley running up into a point.

[ii] The illegible word is certainly not pointing. It begins with an f or a g and probably ends in ing, but does not suggest either facing or gazing.

[iii] The word Ubed, occurring twice here and again in the further notes on names on this page (where it is translated ‘denial’), is written at all occurrences in precisely the same way, and I do not feel at all certain about the third letter.

[iv] Before the words ‘The red eye’ were written my father drew an Old English S-rune (cf. VII.382), but struck it out.

[v] The remainder of this page carries disjointed passages: as elsewhere my father probably had it beside him and used it for jotting down narrative ‘moments’ as they came into his mind. The first reads:


That great mountain’s side was built Minas Tirith, the Tower of Guard, where Gandalf walked now deep in thought.


On this see note 8. Then follows:


For a third night they went on. They had good water in plenty, and Gollum was better fed. Already he was less famished to look at. At early morning when they lay hidden for rest, and at evening when they set out again, he would slip away and return licking his lips. Sometimes in the long night he would take out something . . . and would crunch it as he walked.

 . . . and lay under a deep bank in tall bracken under the shadow of pine trees. Water flowed not far away, cold, good to drink. Gollum slipped away, and returned shortly, licking his lips; but he brought with him also a present for the hobbits. Two rabbits he had caught.


With Sam’s having no objection to rabbit but a distaste from what Gollum brought, and a reference to his prudent wish, in contrast to Frodo’s indifference, to save the elvish waybread for worse times ahead, these exceedingly difficult ‘extracts’ come to an end. It was clearly here that the episode of the stewed rabbit entered; but it seems scarcely possible to define how my father related it to the whole sequence of the journey from the Black Gate.


§19. Night of full moon and vision of Anduin.

Third night. They do not reach the cross ways. [?Trying] to hasten they journey by day through wood. They come to cross ways and peer at it out of thicket.

The headless king with a mocking head made by orcs and scrawls on it.

That night they turn left. Vision of Minas Morghul in the moon high up in re-entrant.[10]


Here this text ends, and was followed by §20

[10] re-entrant: see note 2.